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Differences in risk factors for 3 types of stroke : UK prospective study and meta-analyses

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      Abstract

      Objective

      To compare associations of behavioral and related factors for incident subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke.

      Methods

      A total of 712,433 Million Women Study participants without prior stroke, heart disease, or cancer reported behavioral and related factors at baseline (1999–2007) and were followed up by record linkage to national hospital admission and death databases. Cox regression yielded adjusted relative risks (RRs) by type of stroke. Heterogeneity was assessed with χ 2 tests. When appropriate, meta-analyses were done of published prospective studies.

      Results

      After 12.9 (SD 2.6) years of follow-up, 8,128 women had an incident ischemic stroke, 2,032 had intracerebral hemorrhage, and 1,536 had subarachnoid hemorrhage. In women with diabetes mellitus, the risk of ischemic stroke was substantially increased (RR 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.84–2.20), risk of intracerebral hemorrhage was increased slightly (RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.04–1.65), but risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage was reduced (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.26–0.69) (heterogeneity by stroke type, p < 0.0001). Stroke incidence was greater in women who rated their health as poor/fair compared to those who rated their health as excellent/good (RR 1.36, 95% CI 1.30–1.42). Among 565,850 women who rated their heath as excellent/good, current smokers were at an increased risk of all 3 stroke types, (although greater for subarachnoid hemorrhage [≥15 cigarettes/d vs never smoker, RR 4.75, 95% CI 4.12–5.47] than for intracerebral hemorrhage [RR 2.30, 95% CI 1.94–2.72] or ischemic stroke [RR 2.50, 95% CI 2.29–2.72]; heterogeneity p < 0.0001). Obesity was associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke and a decreased risk of hemorrhagic stroke (heterogeneity p < 0.0001). Meta-analyses confirmed the associations and the heterogeneity across the 3 types of stroke.

      Conclusion

      Classic risk factors for stroke have considerably different effects on the 3 main pathologic types of stroke.

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      Most cited references 30

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      Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies.

      The age-specific relevance of blood pressure to cause-specific mortality is best assessed by collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data from the separate prospective studies. Information was obtained on each of one million adults with no previous vascular disease recorded at baseline in 61 prospective observational studies of blood pressure and mortality. During 12.7 million person-years at risk, there were about 56000 vascular deaths (12000 stroke, 34000 ischaemic heart disease [IHD], 10000 other vascular) and 66000 other deaths at ages 40-89 years. Meta-analyses, involving "time-dependent" correction for regression dilution, related mortality during each decade of age at death to the estimated usual blood pressure at the start of that decade. Within each decade of age at death, the proportional difference in the risk of vascular death associated with a given absolute difference in usual blood pressure is about the same down to at least 115 mm Hg usual systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 75 mm Hg usual diastolic blood pressure (DBP), below which there is little evidence. At ages 40-69 years, each difference of 20 mm Hg usual SBP (or, approximately equivalently, 10 mm Hg usual DBP) is associated with more than a twofold difference in the stroke death rate, and with twofold differences in the death rates from IHD and from other vascular causes. All of these proportional differences in vascular mortality are about half as extreme at ages 80-89 years as at ages 40-49 years, but the annual absolute differences in risk are greater in old age. The age-specific associations are similar for men and women, and for cerebral haemorrhage and cerebral ischaemia. For predicting vascular mortality from a single blood pressure measurement, the average of SBP and DBP is slightly more informative than either alone, and pulse pressure is much less informative. Throughout middle and old age, usual blood pressure is strongly and directly related to vascular (and overall) mortality, without any evidence of a threshold down to at least 115/75 mm Hg.
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        Cancer incidence and mortality in relation to body mass index in the Million Women Study: cohort study.

        To examine the relation between body mass index (kg/m2) and cancer incidence and mortality. Prospective cohort study. 1.2 million UK women recruited into the Million Women Study, aged 50-64 during 1996-2001, and followed up, on average, for 5.4 years for cancer incidence and 7.0 years for cancer mortality. Relative risks of incidence and mortality for all cancers, and for 17 specific types of cancer, according to body mass index, adjusted for age, geographical region, socioeconomic status, age at first birth, parity, smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activity, years since menopause, and use of hormone replacement therapy. 45,037 incident cancers and 17 203 deaths from cancer occurred over the follow-up period. Increasing body mass index was associated with an increased incidence of endometrial cancer (trend in relative risk per 10 units=2.89, 95% confidence interval 2.62 to 3.18), adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus (2.38, 1.59 to 3.56), kidney cancer (1.53, 1.27 to 1.84), leukaemia (1.50, 1.23 to 1.83), multiple myeloma (1.31, 1.04 to 1.65), pancreatic cancer (1.24, 1.03 to 1.48), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (1.17, 1.03 to 1.34), ovarian cancer (1.14, 1.03 to 1.27), all cancers combined (1.12, 1.09 to 1.14), breast cancer in postmenopausal women (1.40, 1.31 to 1.49) and colorectal cancer in premenopausal women (1.61, 1.05 to 2.48). In general, the relation between body mass index and mortality was similar to that for incidence. For colorectal cancer, malignant melanoma, breast cancer, and endometrial cancer, the effect of body mass index on risk differed significantly according to menopausal status. Increasing body mass index is associated with a significant increase in the risk of cancer for 10 out of 17 specific types examined. Among postmenopausal women in the UK, 5% of all cancers (about 6000 annually) are attributable to being overweight or obese. For endometrial cancer and adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus, body mass index represents a major modifiable risk factor; about half of all cases in postmenopausal women are attributable to overweight or obesity.
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          Global and regional burden of first-ever ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke during 1990–2010: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

          Summary Background The burden of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke varies between regions and over time. With differences in prognosis, prevalence of risk factors, and treatment strategies, knowledge of stroke pathological type is important for targeted region-specific health-care planning for stroke and could inform priorities for type-specific prevention strategies. We used data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010) to estimate the global and regional burden of first-ever ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke during 1990–2010. Methods We searched Medline, Embase, LILACS, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Global Health Database, the WHO library, and regional databases from 1990 to 2012 to identify relevant studies published between 1990 and 2010. We applied the GBD 2010 analytical technique (DisMod-MR) to calculate regional and country-specific estimates for ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke incidence, mortality, mortality-to-incidence ratio, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost, by age group (aged <75 years, ≥75 years, and in total) and country income level (high-income and low-income and middle-income) for 1990, 2005, and 2010. Findings We included 119 studies (58 from high-income countries and 61 from low-income and middle-income countries). Worldwide, the burden of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke increased significantly between 1990 and 2010 in terms of the absolute number of people with incident ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke (37% and 47% increase, respectively), number of deaths (21% and 20% increase), and DALYs lost (18% and 14% increase). In the past two decades in high-income countries, incidence of ischaemic stroke reduced significantly by 13% (95% CI 6–18), mortality by 37% (19–39), DALYs lost by 34% (16–36), and mortality-to-incidence ratios by 21% (10–27). For haemorrhagic stroke, incidence reduced significantly by 19% (1–15), mortality by 38% (32–43), DALYs lost by 39% (32–44), and mortality-to-incidence ratios by 27% (19–35). By contrast, in low-income and middle-income countries, we noted a significant increase of 22% (5–30) in incidence of haemorrhagic stroke and a 6% (–7 to 18) non-significant increase in the incidence of ischaemic stroke. Mortality rates for ischaemic stroke fell by 14% (9–19), DALYs lost by 17% (–11 to 21%), and mortality-to-incidence ratios by 16% (–12 to 22). For haemorrhagic stroke in low-income and middle-income countries, mortality rates reduced by 23% (–18 to 25%), DALYs lost by 25% (–21 to 28), and mortality-to-incidence ratios by 36% (–34 to 28). Interpretation Although age-standardised mortality rates for ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke have decreased in the past two decades, the absolute number of people who have these stroke types annually, and the number with related deaths and DALYs lost, is increasing, with most of the burden in low-income and middle-income countries. Further study is needed in these countries to identify which subgroups of the population are at greatest risk and who could be targeted for preventive efforts.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            From the Nuffield Department of Population Health (A.J.P., F.L.W., J.G., A.B., S.W.K., T.Y.O.Y., S.F., R.S., V.B., G.K.R.) and National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit (M.E.K.), University of Oxford; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (A.J.P.); and Centre for Clinical Brain Science (C.L.M.S.), University of Edinburgh, UK.
            Author notes
            Correspondence Dr. Price alison.price@ 123456lshtm.ac.uk
            [*]

            These authors contributed equally to this work.

            Go to Neurology.org/N for full disclosures. Funding information and disclosures deemed relevant by the authors, if any, are provided at the end of the article.

            The Article Processing Charge was funded by the Medical Research Council and Cancer Research UK.

            Contributors
            Journal
            Neurology
            Neurology
            neurology
            neur
            neurology
            NEUROLOGY
            Neurology
            Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (Hagerstown, MD )
            0028-3878
            1526-632X
            23 January 2018
            23 January 2018
            : 90
            : 4
            : e298-e306
            29321237 5798656 NEUROLOGY2017812230 10.1212/WNL.0000000000004856
            Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

            This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC BY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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            Funding
            Funded by: Wellcome Trust
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