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      Growth and Potential Damage of Human Bone-Derived Cells on Fresh and Aged Fullerene C 60 Films

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          Fullerenes are nanoparticles composed of carbon atoms arranged in a spherical hollow cage-like structure. Numerous studies have evaluated the therapeutic potential of fullerene derivates against oxidative stress-associated conditions, including the prevention or treatment of arthritis. On the other hand, fullerenes are not only able to quench, but also to generate harmful reactive oxygen species. The reactivity of fullerenes may change in time due to the oxidation and polymerization of fullerenes in an air atmosphere. In this study, we therefore tested the dependence between the age of fullerene films (from one week to one year) and the proliferation, viability and metabolic activity of human osteosarcoma cells (lines MG-63 and U-2 OS). We also monitored potential membrane and DNA damage and morphological changes of the cells. After seven days of cultivation, we did not observe any cytotoxic morphological changes, such as enlarged cells or cytosolic vacuole formation. Furthermore, there was no increased level of DNA damage. The increasing age of the fullerene films did not cause enhancement of cytotoxicity. On the contrary, it resulted in an improvement in the properties of these materials, which are more suitable for cell cultivation. Therefore, fullerene films could be considered as a promising material with potential use as a bioactive coating of cell carriers for bone tissue engineering.

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          Calculations of electron inelastic mean free paths. IX. Data for 41 elemental solids over the 50 eV to 30 keV range

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            Modulation of cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation on materials designed for body implants.

            The interaction of cells and tissues with artificial materials designed for applications in biotechnologies and in medicine is governed by the physical and chemical properties of the material surface. There is optimal cell adhesion to moderately hydrophilic and positively charged substrates, due to the adsorption of cell adhesion-mediating molecules (e.g. vitronectin, fibronectin) in an advantageous geometrical conformation, which makes specific sites on these molecules (e.g. specific amino acid sequences) accessible to cell adhesion receptors (e.g. integrins). Highly hydrophilic surfaces prevent the adsorption of proteins, or these molecules are bound very weakly. On highly hydrophobic materials, however, proteins are adsorbed in rigid and denatured forms, hampering cell adhesion. The wettability of the material surface, particularly in synthetic polymers, can be effectively regulated by physical treatments, e.g. by irradiation with ions, plasma or UV light. The irradiation-activated material surface can be functionalized by various biomolecules and nanoparticles, and this further enhances its attractiveness for cells and its effectiveness in regulating cell functions. Another important factor for cell-material interaction is surface roughness and surface topography. Nanostructured substrates (i.e. substrates with irregularities smaller than 100nm), are generally considered to be beneficial for cell adhesion and growth, while microstructured substrates behave more controversially (e.g. they can hamper cell spreading and proliferation but they enhance cell differentiation, particularly in osteogenic cells). A factor which has been relatively less investigated, but which is essential for cell-material interaction, is material deformability. Highly soft and deformable substrates cannot resist the tractional forces generated by cells during cell adhesion, and cells are not able to attach, spread and survive on such materials. Local variation in the physical and chemical properties of the material surface can be advantageously used for constructing patterned surfaces. Micropatterned surfaces enable regionally selective cell adhesion and directed growth, which can be utilized in tissue engineering, in constructing microarrays and in biosensorics. Nanopatterned surfaces are an effective tool for manipulating the type, number, spacing and distribution of ligands for cell adhesion receptors on the material surface. As a consequence, these surfaces are able to control the size, shape, distribution and maturity of focal adhesion plaques on cells, and thus cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and other cell functions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              [60]fullerene is a powerful antioxidant in vivo with no acute or subacute toxicity.

              In the present work, we report the effects of C(60)-pretreatments on acute carbon tetrachloride intoxication in rats, a classical model for studying free-radical-mediated liver injury. Our results show that aqueous C(60) suspensions prepared without using any polar organic solvent not only have no acute or subacute toxicity in rodents but they also protect their livers in a dose-dependent manner against free-radical damage. To be sure, according to histopathological examinations and biological tests, pristine C(60) can be considered as a powerful liver-protective agent.

                Author and article information

                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
                May 2013
                26 April 2013
                : 14
                : 5
                : 9182-9204
                [1 ]Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Videnska 1083, 14220 Prague 4-Krc, Czech Republic; E-Mail: ivana.kopova@
                [2 ]Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 25068 Rez near Prague, Czech Republic; E-Mails: lavrent@ (V.L.); vacik@ (J.V.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: lucy@ ; Tel.: +420-2-9644-3743; Fax: +420-2-9644-2844.
                © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (



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