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      The Importance of Water Quality and Haemodialysis Fluid Composition

      a , b , c

      Blood Purification

      S. Karger AG

      Dialysis fluid, Water contaminants, Haemodialysis

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          Abstract

          Treatment of renal failure by haemodialysis uses dialysis fluid to facilitate the normalization of electrolyte and acid base abnormalities and the removal of low molecular weight uraemic compounds present in the plasma such as urea. The dialysis fluid is a continuously produced blend of treated tap water and a concentrated solution containing electrolytes, buffer, and glucose. The water used originates as drinking water but undergoes additional treatment. Recent surveys have indicated that the chemical and microbiological content of such water frequently fails to meet the requirements of established standards, and its bacterial content arising from the presence of a biofilm in the water distribution network or the hydraulic circuit of the dialysis machine is a contributory factor to the chronic inflammatory state in patients undergoing regular dialysis. The composition of the dialysis fluid plays an important role in the modulation of complications associated with end-stage renal disease, as well as those associated with the treatment itself. The avoidance of complications arising from water contaminants requires a constant and vigorous attention to water quality, whilst with the composition of electrolytes and buffer there is a trend towards greater individualization to provide a high degree of treatment tolerance.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Clinical consequences of an individualized dialysate sodium prescription in hemodialysis patients.

          Predialysis plasma sodium (Na(+)) concentration is relatively constant in hemodialysis (HD) patients, and a higher dialysate Na(+) concentration can promote an increase in the interdialytic fluid ingestion to achieve an individual's osmolar set point, and individualization of dialysate Na(+) concentration may improve interdialytic weight gain (IDWG), blood pressure (BP), and HD-related symptoms. Twenty-seven nondiabetic, non-hypotension prone HD patients were enrolled in a single-blind crossover study. Subjects underwent nine consecutive HD sessions with the dialysate Na(+) concentration set to 138 mEq/L (standard Na(+) HD), followed by nine sessions wherein the dialysate Na(+) was set to match the patients average pre-HD plasma Na(+) measured three times during the standard Na(+) phase multiplied by 0.95 (individualized dialysate Na(+) HD). Dry weight, dialysis prescription, and medications were not modified during the six weeks of the study. Pre-HD Na(+) was similar in both periods of the study (standard Na(+) HD, 134.0 +/- 1.4 mEq/L; individualized Na(+) HD, 134.0 +/- 1.5 mEq/L; P= 0.735). There was a significant decrease in interdialytic weight gain (2.91 +/- 0.87 kg vs. 2.29 +/- 0.65 kg; P< 0.001), interdialytic thirst scores, and episodes of intradialytic hypotension in the individualized Na(+) period compared with the standard phase. Pre-HD BP was lower in individualized Na(+) HD in patients with uncontrolled BP at baseline (N= 15), but not in those with controlled BP at baseline (N= 12) (DeltaBP -15.6/-6.5 mm Hg in uncontrolled vs. DeltaBP +6.4/+4.5 mm Hg in controlled, P= <0.001 for systolic BP and P= <0.001 for diastolic BP). An individualized Na(+) dialysate based on predialysis plasma Na(+) levels decreases thirst, IDWG, HD-related symptoms, and pre-HD BP (in patients with uncontrolled BP at baseline).
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            Short bacterial DNA fragments: detection in dialysate and induction of cytokines.

            A number of bacterial cytokine-inducing substances (CIS) such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and exotoxins have been detected in dialysate and may contribute to inflammation in hemodialysis patients. Short DNA fragments, oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) of 6 to 20 nucleotides, are able to bind to Toll-like receptors and are stimulatory on immune cells. ODN induce natural killer cell activity and induce IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 from mononuclear cells. The presence of ODN in dialysate samples and bacterial cultures was investigated. ODN were extracted from fluids by adsorption to reverse-phase columns. ODN were detected in 18 of 20 investigated dialysate samples, in eight of 10 reverse-osmosis water samples, and in all cultures from various bacterial strains. The presence of bacterial DNA in dialysate was confirmed by PCR specific for bacterial tRNA gene sequences. Saline for intravenous use contained 0.02 +/- 0.01 microg/ml DNA, dialysate samples contained 0.28 +/- 0.02 microg/ml, and Pseudomonas cultures contained 1.0 +/- 0.03 microg/ml DNA. ODN from bacterial cultures were only partially removed by ultrafiltration and were able to diffuse through regular high-flux dialyzer membranes. Synthetic cytosine-guanosine dinucleotide-containing ODN were able to induce IL-6 in human mononuclear cells. It is concluded that short bacterial-derived DNA fragments are present in clinically used fluids, e.g., dialysate. These fragments are of sufficient small size to pass through dialyzer membranes. Bacterial DNA fragments may be an overlooked factor contributing to inflammation in hemodialysis patients.
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              Ultrapure dialysis fluid slows loss of residual renal function in new dialysis patients.

              Residual renal function is beneficial for adequacy of haemodialysis, quality of life and mortality in dialysis patients. Our prospective randomised investigation aimed to analyse the effects of the microbiological quality of dialysis fluid on the course of residual renal function after initiation of haemodialysis. Thirty patients starting haemodialysis were randomly assigned to ultrapure or conventional dialysate. During the 24-month study period, creatinine clearance, CRP and IL-6 levels, hydration status, number of hypotensive episodes and blood pressure recordings were assessed every 6 months. Residual renal function declined in both groups during the study period, although there were no statistically significant differences in demographic (age, gender), renal (cause of end-stage renal disease, residual renal function, hypertension, ACE inhibitors) and treatment characteristics (Kt/V urea) at recruitment. The use of mildly contaminated (up to 300 CFU/ml) dialysate resulted in higher CRP and IL-6 levels and more pronounced loss of residual renal function. Multiple regression analysis showed that the microbiological quality of the dialysate is an independent determinant of the loss of residual renal function. Ultrapure dialysis fluid combined with high-flux synthetic membranes are effective components of renal replacement therapy to slow the loss of residual renal function in haemodialysis patients. These improvements of haemodialysis are desirable, but add to treatment costs.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-8052-6
                978-3-318-01301-6
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2006
                December 2005
                23 December 2005
                : 24
                : 1
                : 11-18
                Affiliations
                aSchool of Clinical Medical Sciences, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; bDepartment of Nephrology, San Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy; cRenal Research Institute, New York, N.Y., USA
                Article
                89430 Blood Purif 2006;24:11–18
                10.1159/000089430
                16361834
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, References: 38, Pages: 8
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/89430
                Categories
                Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Dialysis fluid, Haemodialysis, Water contaminants

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