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      Host relationships and geographic distribution of species of Acanthobothrium Blanchard, 1848 (Onchoproteocephalidea, Onchobothriidae) in elasmobranchs: a metadata analysis

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          Species of Acanthobothrium have been documented as parasites of the spiral intestine of elasmobranchs. Results of a metadata analysis indicate that 114 species of elasmobranchs have been reported as hosts of 200 species of Acanthobothrium . The metadata analysis revealed that 3.7% of species of sharks and 14.9% of species of rays that have been reported as hosts to date; some species are parasitized by more than one species of Acanthobothrium . This work provides a Category designation, as proposed by Ghoshroy and Caira (2001), for each species of Acanthobothrium . These Category designations are a tool to facilitate comparisons among members of Acanthobothrium for descriptions of new species in the future.

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          Most cited references 124

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          Entozoorum synopsis cui accedunt mantissa duplex et indices locupletissimi / auctore, Carolo Asmund Rudolphi.

           Karl Rudolphi (1819)
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            Rays of the World

            Rays are among the largest fishes and evolved from shark-like ancestors nearly 200 million years ago. They share with sharks many life history traits: all species are carnivores or scavengers; all reproduce by internal fertilisation; and all have similar morphological and anatomical characteristics, such as skeletons built of cartilage. Rays of the World is the first complete pictorial atlas of the world’s ray fauna and includes information on many species only recently discovered by scientists while undertaking research for the book. It includes all 26 families and 633 valid named species of rays, but additional undescribed species exist for many groups. Rays of the World features a unique collection of paintings of all living species by Australian natural history artist Lindsay Marshall, compiled as part of a multinational research initiative, the Chondrichthyan Tree of Life Project. Images sourced from around the planet were used by the artist to illustrate the fauna. This comprehensive overview of the world’s ray fauna summarises information such as general identifying features and distributional information about these iconic, but surprisingly poorly known, fishes. It will enable readers to gain a better understanding of the rich diversity of rays and promote wider public interest in the group. Rays of the World is an ideal reference for a wide range of readers, including conservationists, fishery managers, scientists, fishers, divers, students and book collectors.
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              A revised classification of the family Dasyatidae (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes) based on new morphological and molecular insights.

              The higher-level taxonomy of the stingrays (Dasyatidae) has never been comprehensively reviewed. Recent phylogenetic studies, supported by morphological data, have provided evidence that the group is monophyletic and consists of four major subgroups, the subfamilies Dasyatinae, Neotrygoninae, Urogymninae and Hypolophinae. A morphologically based review of 89 currently recognised species, undertaken for a guide to the world's rays, indicated that most of the currently recognised dasyatid genera are not monophyletic groups. These findings were supported by molecular analyses using the NADH2 gene for about 77 of these species, and this topology is supported by preliminary analyses base on whole mitochondrial genome comparisons. These molecular analyses, based on data generated from the Chondrichthyan Tree of Life project, are the most taxon-rich data available for this family. Material from all of the presently recognised genera (Dasyatis, Pteroplatytrygon and Taeniurops [Dasyatinae]; Neotrygon and Taeniura [Neotrygoninae]; Himantura and Urogymnus [Urogymninae]; and Makararaja and Pastinachus [Hypolophinae]), are included and their validity largely supported. Urogymnus and the two most species rich genera, Dasyatis and Himantura, are not considered to be monophyletic and were redefined based on external morphology. Seven new genus-level taxa are erected (Megatrygon and Telatrygon [Dasyatinae]; Brevitrygon, Fluvitrygon, Fontitrygon, Maculabatis and Pateobatis [Urogymninae], and an additional three (Bathytoshia, Hemitrygon and Hypanus [Dasyatinae]) are resurrected from the synonymy of Dasyatis. The monotypic genus Megatrygon clustered with 'amphi-American Himantura' outside the Dasyatidae, and instead as the sister group of the Potamotrygonidae and Urotrygonidae. Megatrygon is provisionally retained in the Dasyatinae pending further investigation of its internal anatomy. The morphologically divergent groups, Bathytoshia and Pteroplatytrygon, possibly form a single monophyletic group so further investigation is needed to confirm the validity of Pteroplatytrygon. A reclassification of the family Dasyatidae is provided and the above taxa are defined based on new morphological data.

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                11 June 2020
                : 940
                : 1-49
                [1 ] Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, Apartado Postal 1-10, C.P. 42001, Pachuca, Hidalgo, México Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo Hidalgo Mexico
                [2 ] Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0514, USA University of Nebraska Lincoln United States of America
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Scott Monks ( monks.scott@ 123456gmail.com )

                Academic editor: Boyko Georgiev

                Francisco Zaragoza-Tapia, Griselda Pulido-Flores, Scott L. Gardner, Scott Monks

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funded by: Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología 501100007350 http://doi.org/10.13039/501100007350
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