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      Self-Gated Free-Breathing 3D Coronary CINE Imaging with Simultaneous Water and Fat Visualization

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          Abstract

          The aim of this study was to develop a novel technique for acquiring 3-dimensional (3D) coronary CINE magnetic resonance images with both water and fat visualization during free breathing and without external respiratory or cardiac gating. The implemented multi-echo hybrid 3D radial balanced Steady-State Free Precession (SSFP) sequence has an efficient data acquisition and is robust against motion. The k-space center along the slice encoding direction was repeatedly acquired to derive both respiratory and cardiac self-gating signals without an increase in scan time, enabling a free-breathing acquisition. The multi-echo acquisition allowed image reconstruction with water-fat separation, providing improved visualization of the coronary artery lumen. Ten healthy subjects were imaged successfully at 1.5 T, achieving a spatial resolution of 1.0×1.0×3.0 mm 3 and scan time of about 5 minutes. The proposed imaging technique provided coronary vessel depiction comparable to that obtained with conventional breath-hold imaging and navigator gated free-breathing imaging.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Sparse MRI: The application of compressed sensing for rapid MR imaging.

          The sparsity which is implicit in MR images is exploited to significantly undersample k-space. Some MR images such as angiograms are already sparse in the pixel representation; other, more complicated images have a sparse representation in some transform domain-for example, in terms of spatial finite-differences or their wavelet coefficients. According to the recently developed mathematical theory of compressed-sensing, images with a sparse representation can be recovered from randomly undersampled k-space data, provided an appropriate nonlinear recovery scheme is used. Intuitively, artifacts due to random undersampling add as noise-like interference. In the sparse transform domain the significant coefficients stand out above the interference. A nonlinear thresholding scheme can recover the sparse coefficients, effectively recovering the image itself. In this article, practical incoherent undersampling schemes are developed and analyzed by means of their aliasing interference. Incoherence is introduced by pseudo-random variable-density undersampling of phase-encodes. The reconstruction is performed by minimizing the l(1) norm of a transformed image, subject to data fidelity constraints. Examples demonstrate improved spatial resolution and accelerated acquisition for multislice fast spin-echo brain imaging and 3D contrast enhanced angiography. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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            Generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisitions (GRAPPA).

            In this study, a novel partially parallel acquisition (PPA) method is presented which can be used to accelerate image acquisition using an RF coil array for spatial encoding. This technique, GeneRalized Autocalibrating Partially Parallel Acquisitions (GRAPPA) is an extension of both the PILS and VD-AUTO-SMASH reconstruction techniques. As in those previous methods, a detailed, highly accurate RF field map is not needed prior to reconstruction in GRAPPA. This information is obtained from several k-space lines which are acquired in addition to the normal image acquisition. As in PILS, the GRAPPA reconstruction algorithm provides unaliased images from each component coil prior to image combination. This results in even higher SNR and better image quality since the steps of image reconstruction and image combination are performed in separate steps. After introducing the GRAPPA technique, primary focus is given to issues related to the practical implementation of GRAPPA, including the reconstruction algorithm as well as analysis of SNR in the resulting images. Finally, in vivo GRAPPA images are shown which demonstrate the utility of the technique. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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              SENSE: sensitivity encoding for fast MRI.

              New theoretical and practical concepts are presented for considerably enhancing the performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by means of arrays of multiple receiver coils. Sensitivity encoding (SENSE) is based on the fact that receiver sensitivity generally has an encoding effect complementary to Fourier preparation by linear field gradients. Thus, by using multiple receiver coils in parallel scan time in Fourier imaging can be considerably reduced. The problem of image reconstruction from sensitivity encoded data is formulated in a general fashion and solved for arbitrary coil configurations and k-space sampling patterns. Special attention is given to the currently most practical case, namely, sampling a common Cartesian grid with reduced density. For this case the feasibility of the proposed methods was verified both in vitro and in vivo. Scan time was reduced to one-half using a two-coil array in brain imaging. With an array of five coils double-oblique heart images were obtained in one-third of conventional scan time. Magn Reson Med 42:952-962, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, United States of America
                [2 ]Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
                Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Switzerland
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: JL TDN. Performed the experiments: JL TDN YZ. Analyzed the data: JL TDN MRP JWW YW. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: DS YW. Wrote the paper: JL TDN PS YW.

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2014
                20 February 2014
                : 9
                : 2
                3930724 PONE-D-13-20315 10.1371/journal.pone.0089315

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Counts
                Pages: 8
                Funding
                Funding came from National Institutes of Health: NIH R01HL062994, NIH R01HL064647, NIH K25EB014914. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology
                Anatomy and physiology
                Cardiovascular system
                Engineering
                Signal processing
                Image processing
                Medicine
                Anatomy and physiology
                Cardiovascular system
                Cardiovascular
                Cardiovascular imaging
                Non-clinical medicine
                Health care policy
                Screening guidelines
                Public health
                Health screening
                Radiology
                Diagnostic radiology
                Magnetic resonance imaging

                Uncategorized

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