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      A Prospective Study of Sudden Cardiac Death among Children and Young Adults.

      The New England journal of medicine

      New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM/MMS)

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          Abstract

          Sudden cardiac death among children and young adults is a devastating event. We performed a prospective, population-based, clinical and genetic study of sudden cardiac death among children and young adults.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Discovery and statistical genotyping of copy-number variation from whole-exome sequencing depth.

          Sequencing of gene-coding regions (the exome) is increasingly used for studying human disease, for which copy-number variants (CNVs) are a critical genetic component. However, detecting copy number from exome sequencing is challenging because of the noncontiguous nature of the captured exons. This is compounded by the complex relationship between read depth and copy number; this results from biases in targeted genomic hybridization, sequence factors such as GC content, and batching of samples during collection and sequencing. We present a statistical tool (exome hidden Markov model [XHMM]) that uses principal-component analysis (PCA) to normalize exome read depth and a hidden Markov model (HMM) to discover exon-resolution CNV and genotype variation across samples. We evaluate performance on 90 schizophrenia trios and 1,017 case-control samples. XHMM detects a median of two rare (<1%) CNVs per individual (one deletion and one duplication) and has 79% sensitivity to similarly rare CNVs overlapping three or more exons discovered with microarrays. With sensitivity similar to state-of-the-art methods, XHMM achieves higher specificity by assigning quality metrics to the CNV calls to filter out bad ones, as well as to statistically genotype the discovered CNV in all individuals, yielding a trio call set with Mendelian-inheritance properties highly consistent with expectation. We also show that XHMM breakpoint quality scores enable researchers to explicitly search for novel classes of structural variation. For example, we apply XHMM to extract those CNVs that are highly likely to disrupt (delete or duplicate) only a portion of a gene. Copyright © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Nationwide study of sudden cardiac death in persons aged 1-35 years.

            The aim of this investigation was to study the incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in persons aged 1-35 years in a nationwide setting (5.38 million people) by systematic evaluation of all deaths. All deaths in persons aged 1-35 years in Denmark in 2000-06 were included. Death certificates were read independently by two physicians. The National Patient Registry was used to retrieve information on prior medical history. All autopsy reports were read and the cause of death was revised based on autopsy findings. We identified 625 cases of sudden unexpected death (10% of all deaths), of which 156 (25%) were not autopsied. Of the 469 autopsied cases, 314 (67%) were SCD. The most common cardiac cause of death was ischaemic heart disease (13%); 29% of autopsied sudden unexpected death cases were unexplained. In 45% of SCD cases, the death was witnessed; 34% died during sleep; 89% were out-of-hospital deaths. Highest possible incidence rate of SCD in the young was 2.8 per 100 000 person-years including non-autopsied cases of sudden unexpected death. Excluding those, the incidence rate declined to 1.9 per 100 000 person-years. A total of 7% of all deaths in the young can be attributed to SCD, when including non-autopsied cases (autopsy ratio 75%). The incidence rate of SCD in the young of 2.8 per 100 000 person-years is higher than previously reported.
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              Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome: familial evaluation identifies inheritable heart disease in the majority of families.

              At least 4% of sudden deaths are unexplained at autopsy [sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS)] and a quarter may be due to inherited cardiac disease. We hypothesized that comprehensive clinical investigation of SADS families would identify more susceptible individuals and causes of death. Fifty seven consecutively referred families with SADS death underwent evaluation including resting 12 lead, 24 h and exercise ECG and 2D echocardiography. Other investigations included signal averaged ECG, ajmaline testing, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and mutation analysis. First-degree relatives [184/262 (70%)] underwent evaluation, 13 (7%) reporting unexplained syncope. Seventeen (30%) families had a history of additional unexplained premature sudden death(s). Thirty families (53%) were diagnosed with inheritable heart disease: 13 definite long QT syndrome (LQTS), three possible/probable LQTS, five Brugada syndrome, five arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), and four other cardiomyopathies. One SCN5A and four KCNH2 mutations (38%) were identified in 13 definite LQTS families, one SCN5A mutation (20%) in five Brugada syndrome families and one (25%) PKP2 (plakophyllin2) mutation in four ARVC families. Over half of SADS deaths were likely to be due to inherited heart disease; accurate identification is vital for appropriate prophylaxis amongst relatives who should undergo comprehensive cardiological evaluation, guided and confirmed by mutation analysis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                27332903
                10.1056/NEJMoa1510687

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