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      Depression and onset of cardiovascular disease in the US middle-aged and older adults

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      Aging & Mental Health

      Informa UK Limited

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          Most cited references 32

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          Depression as an aetiologic and prognostic factor in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of 6362 events among 146 538 participants in 54 observational studies.

          With negative treatment trials, the role of depression as an aetiological or prognostic factor in coronary heart disease (CHD) remains controversial. We quantified the effect of depression on CHD, assessing the extent of confounding by coronary risk factors and disease severity. Meta-analysis of cohort studies measuring depression with follow-up for fatal CHD/incident myocardial infarction (aetiological) or all-cause mortality/fatal CHD (prognostic). We searched MEDLINE and Science Citation Index until December 2003. In 21 aetiological studies, the pooled relative risk of future CHD associated with depression was 1.81 (95% CI 1.53-2.15). Adjusted results were included for 11 studies, with adjustment reducing the crude effect marginally from 2.08 (1.69-2.55) to 1.90 (1.49-2.42). In 34 prognostic studies, the pooled relative risk was 1.80 (1.50-2.15). Results adjusted for left ventricular function result were available in only eight studies; and this attenuated the relative risk from 2.18 to 1.53 (1.11-2.10), a 48% reduction. Both aetiological and prognostic studies without adjusted results had lower unadjusted effect sizes than studies from which adjusted results were included (P<0.01). Depression has yet to be established as an independent risk factor for CHD because of incomplete and biased availability of adjustment for conventional risk factors and severity of coronary disease.
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            Major depression in individuals with chronic medical disorders: prevalence, correlates and association with health resource utilization, lost productivity and functional disability.

             Leonard Egede (2007)
            The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and odds of major depression and the incremental effect of major depression on utilization, lost productivity and functional disability in individuals with common chronic medical disorders. Data on 30,801 adults from the 1999 National Health Interview Survey were analyzed. The 12-month prevalence and age/sex-adjusted odds of major depression were calculated for adults with hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure (CHF), stroke or cerebrovascular accident (CVA), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The association between chronic condition status (with and without major depression) and utilization, lost productivity and functional disability was determined by controlling for covariates. The 12-month prevalence and age/sex-adjusted odds of major depression by chronic conditions were as follows: CHF, 7.9% [odds ratio (OR)=1.96]; HTN, 8.0% (OR=2.00); DM, 9.3% (OR=1.96); CAD, 9.3% (OR=2.30); CVA, 11.4% (OR=3.15); COPD, 15.4% (OR=3.21); ESRD, 17.0% (OR=3.56); any chronic condition, 8.8% (OR=2.61). Compared to adults without chronic conditions, those with chronic conditions plus major depression had greater odds of > or = 1 ambulatory visit [OR=1.50; 95% confidence interval (95% CI)=1.28, 1.77]; > or = 1 emergency room visit (OR=1.94; 95% CI=1.55, 2.45); and > or = 1 day in bed due to illness (OR=1.60; 95% CI=1.28, 2.00); and functional disability (OR=2.48; 95% CI=1.96, 3.15). The 12-month prevalence and odds of major depression are high in individuals with chronic medical conditions, and major depression is associated with significant increases in utilization, lost productivity and functional disability.
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              Nonresponse in Household Interview Surveys

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Aging & Mental Health
                Aging & Mental Health
                Informa UK Limited
                1360-7863
                1364-6915
                January 02 2015
                January 23 2015
                December 02 2015
                : 19
                : 12
                : 1084-1092
                Article
                10.1080/13607863.2014.1003281
                © 2015

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