Type B lactic acidosis, a rare but often fatal disorder, has been reported in 21 AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). We present an AIDS patient with severe and prolonged lactic acidosis on stavudine and lamivudine. The lactic acidosis occurred in the absence of mitochondrial myopathy, hepatomegaly, or liver failure. This is the second report of lactic acidosis in a patient on stavudine and lamivudine. This patient recovered after aggressive supportive therapy including intravenous alkali and fluid administration as well as continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration. A single dose of dichloroacetate (DCA) was associated with a decrease in the serum lactate level by 20%, which persisted for more than 24 h. Seventeen months after recovery, the patient was rechallenged with ART without recurrence of lactic acidosis. We review and summarize all reported cases of patients with ART-associated lactic acidosis reported in the English literature.