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      Lactic Acidosis in the Setting of Antiretroviral Therapy for the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

      ,

      American Journal of Nephrology

      S. Karger AG

      Lactic acidosis, Antiretroviral therapy, Stavudine, Lamivudine, HIV, AIDS, Dichloroacetate

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          Abstract

          Type B lactic acidosis, a rare but often fatal disorder, has been reported in 21 AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). We present an AIDS patient with severe and prolonged lactic acidosis on stavudine and lamivudine. The lactic acidosis occurred in the absence of mitochondrial myopathy, hepatomegaly, or liver failure. This is the second report of lactic acidosis in a patient on stavudine and lamivudine. This patient recovered after aggressive supportive therapy including intravenous alkali and fluid administration as well as continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration. A single dose of dichloroacetate (DCA) was associated with a decrease in the serum lactate level by 20%, which persisted for more than 24 h. Seventeen months after recovery, the patient was rechallenged with ART without recurrence of lactic acidosis. We review and summarize all reported cases of patients with ART-associated lactic acidosis reported in the English literature.

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          Most cited references 3

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          Cellular and mitochondrial toxicity of zidovudine (AZT), didanosine (ddI) and zalcitabine (ddC) on cultured human muscle cells.

          Zidovudine (AZT), didanosine (ddI) and zalcitabine (ddC) are the reference antiretroviral therapy in patients with AIDS. A toxic mitochondrial myopathy can be observed in patients treated with AZT, but not with ddI and ddC. All 3 compounds can inhibit mitochondrial (mt)DNA polymerase and cause termination of synthesis of growing mtDNA strands and mtDNA depletion. The propensity to injure particular target tissues is unexplained. In our work, cultured muscle cells prepared from human muscle biopsies, were exposed to various concentrations of AZT (4-5000 micromol/l), ddI (5-1000 micromol/l) and ddC (1-1000 micromol/l) for 10 days. We evaluated cell proliferation and differentiation and measured lipid droplet accumulation, lactate production and respiratory chain enzyme activities. All 3 compounds induced a dose-related decrease of cell proliferation and differentiation. AZT seemed to be the most potent inhibitor of cell proliferation. AZT, ddI and ddC induced cytoplasmic lipid droplet accumulations, increased lactate production and decreased activities of COX (complex IV) and SDH (part of complex II). NADHR (complex I) and citrate sinthase activities were unchanged. Zalcitabine (ddC) and, to a lesser extent, ddI, were the most potent inhibitors of mitochondrial function. In conclusion, AZT, ddI and ddC all exert cytotoxic effects on human muscle cells and induce functional alterations of mitochondria possibly due to mechanisms other than the sole mtDNA depletion. Our results provide only a partial explanation of the fact that AZT, but not ddI and ddC, can induce a myopathy in HIV-infected patients. AZT myopathy might not simply result from a direct mitochondrial toxic effect of crude AZT.
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            Zidovudine-induced mitochondrial disorder with massive liver steatosis, myopathy, lactic acidosis, and mitochondrial DNA depletion

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              • Abstract: not found
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              Zidovudine-induced fatal lactic acidosis and hepatic failure in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2000
                August 2000
                01 September 2000
                : 20
                : 4
                : 332-338
                Affiliations
                Division of Nephrology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn., USA
                Article
                13610 Am J Nephrol 2000;20:332–338
                10.1159/000013610
                10970989
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 23, Pages: 7
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/13610
                Categories
                Case Report

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