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      Smoking Is a Risk Factor for Severe Acute Kidney Injury in Hantavirus-Induced Nephropathia Epidemica

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          Background/Aims: Hantaviruses are zoonotic pathogens causing emerging diseases worldwide. Patients typically present with fever, acute kidney injury (AKI) and thrombocytopenia. Puumala virus (PUUV) that causes nephropathia epidemica (NE) is common in Germany. Recently, a study from Finland revealed an association between nicotine consumption and the severity of AKI in NE. Differences between individuals in Finland and Germany might modulate the effect; therefore, the aim of our study was to prove that smoking is a risk factor for a severe course of NE in Germany. Methods: A cross-sectional prospective survey of 485 patients with hantavirus infections was performed. Clinical and laboratory data during the acute course of the disease were obtained from medical reports and files, while follow-up (including smoking status) data were collected prospectively. Results: Smoking information was available for 298 out of 485 patients (61%). Male was the predominant gender (67%), median age at the time of diagnosis was 50 (interquartile range, IQR 41-60) years and 34% of patients were current smokers during the phase of acute NE. Patients in the smoking group were significantly younger than in the non-smoking group (p < 0.0001). Peak serum creatinine levels were significantly higher in the smoking group than in the non-smoking patients (median 301 (IQR 186-469 μmol/l) vs. median 240 (IQR 137-469 μmol/l), p < 0.05). In addition, severe AKI (stages 2 and 3 using KDIGO criteria) was more common in current smokers (80%) than in the non-smokers (68%, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Current smoking is a risk factor for severity of AKI in patients with acute PUUV infection in Germany. Therefore, information about smoking habits needs to be an integral part of the documentation in patients with suspected acute PUUV infection, and increased monitoring of kidney function should be done in NE patients who are current smokers.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Hantavirus infections in Europe.

          Hantaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses each carried by a specific rodent species. Three hantaviruses, Puumala, Dobrava, and Saaremaa viruses, are known to cause haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. In Europe. Puumala causes a generally mild disease, nephropathia epidemica, which presents most commonly with fever, headache, gastrointestinal symptoms, impaired renal function, and blurred vision, whereas Dobrava infections often also have haemorrhagic complications. There are few available data about the clinical picture of confirmed Saaremaa infections, but epidemiological evidence suggests that it is less pathogenic than Dobrava, and that Saaremaa infections are more similar to nephropathia epidemica caused by Puumala. Along with its rodent host, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus), Puumala is reported throughout most of Europe (excluding the Mediterranean region), whereas Dobrava, carried by the yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis), and Saaremaa, carried by the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius), are reported mainly in eastern and central Europe. The diagnosis of acute hantavirus infection is based on the detection of virus-specific IgM. Whereas Puumala is distinct, Dobrava and Saaremaa are genetically and antigenically very closely related and were previously thought to be variants of the same virus. Typing of a specific hantavirus infection requires neutralisation antibody assays or reverse transcriptase PCR and sequencing.
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            Uncovering the mysteries of hantavirus infections

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              Mortality Rate Patterns for Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Caused by Puumala Virus

              To investigate nephropathia epidemica in Sweden during 1997–2007, we determined case-fatality rates for 5,282 patients with this disease. Overall, 0.4% died of acute nephropathia epidemica <3 months after diagnosis. Case-fatality rates increased with age. Only women showed an increased case-fatality rate during the first year after diagnosis.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG (Basel, Switzerland karger@ 123456karger.com http://www.karger.com )
                October 2016
                08 July 2016
                : 134
                : 2
                : 89-94
                aDepartment of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Robert-Bosch Hospital, and bDepartment of Mathematics, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany; cDivision of Nephrology, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland
                NEF2016134002089 Nephron 2016;134:89-94
                © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 43, Pages: 6
                Clinical Practice: Original Paper


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