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      Endothelial Ca 2+ Signaling and the Resistance to Anticancer Treatments: Partners in Crime

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          Abstract

          Intracellular Ca 2+ signaling drives angiogenesis and vasculogenesis by stimulating proliferation, migration, and tube formation in both vascular endothelial cells and endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs), which represent the only endothelial precursor truly belonging to the endothelial phenotype. In addition, local Ca 2+ signals at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–mitochondria interface regulate endothelial cell fate by stimulating survival or apoptosis depending on the extent of the mitochondrial Ca 2+ increase. The present article aims at describing how remodeling of the endothelial Ca 2+ toolkit contributes to establish intrinsic or acquired resistance to standard anti-cancer therapies. The endothelial Ca 2+ toolkit undergoes a major alteration in tumor endothelial cells and tumor-associated ECFCs. These include changes in TRPV4 expression and increase in the expression of P2X7 receptors, Piezo2, Stim1, Orai1, TRPC1, TRPC5, Connexin 40 and dysregulation of the ER Ca 2+ handling machinery. Additionally, remodeling of the endothelial Ca 2+ toolkit could involve nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, gasotransmitters-gated channels, two-pore channels and Na +/H + exchanger. Targeting the endothelial Ca 2+ toolkit could represent an alternative adjuvant therapy to circumvent patients’ resistance to current anti-cancer treatments.

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          Most cited references 253

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          H2S as a physiologic vasorelaxant: hypertension in mice with deletion of cystathionine gamma-lyase.

          Studies of nitric oxide over the past two decades have highlighted the fundamental importance of gaseous signaling molecules in biology and medicine. The physiological role of other gases such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is now receiving increasing attention. Here we show that H2S is physiologically generated by cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) and that genetic deletion of this enzyme in mice markedly reduces H2S levels in the serum, heart, aorta, and other tissues. Mutant mice lacking CSE display pronounced hypertension and diminished endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. CSE is physiologically activated by calcium-calmodulin, which is a mechanism for H2S formation in response to vascular activation. These findings provide direct evidence that H2S is a physiologic vasodilator and regulator of blood pressure.
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            Store-Operated Calcium Channels.

             Murali Prakriya (corresponding) ,  Richard S. Lewis (2015)
            Store-operated calcium channels (SOCs) are a major pathway for calcium signaling in virtually all metozoan cells and serve a wide variety of functions ranging from gene expression, motility, and secretion to tissue and organ development and the immune response. SOCs are activated by the depletion of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), triggered physiologically through stimulation of a diverse set of surface receptors. Over 15 years after the first characterization of SOCs through electrophysiology, the identification of the STIM proteins as ER Ca(2+) sensors and the Orai proteins as store-operated channels has enabled rapid progress in understanding the unique mechanism of store-operate calcium entry (SOCE). Depletion of Ca(2+) from the ER causes STIM to accumulate at ER-plasma membrane (PM) junctions where it traps and activates Orai channels diffusing in the closely apposed PM. Mutagenesis studies combined with recent structural insights about STIM and Orai proteins are now beginning to reveal the molecular underpinnings of these choreographic events. This review describes the major experimental advances underlying our current understanding of how ER Ca(2+) depletion is coupled to the activation of SOCs. Particular emphasis is placed on the molecular mechanisms of STIM and Orai activation, Orai channel properties, modulation of STIM and Orai function, pharmacological inhibitors of SOCE, and the functions of STIM and Orai in physiology and disease.
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              Calcium and cancer: targeting Ca2+ transport.

              Ca2+ is a ubiquitous cellular signal. Altered expression of specific Ca2+ channels and pumps are characterizing features of some cancers. The ability of Ca2+ to regulate both cell death and proliferation, combined with the potential for pharmacological modulation, offers the opportunity for a set of new drug targets in cancer. However, the ubiquity of the Ca2+ signal is often mistakenly presumed to thwart the specific therapeutic targeting of proteins that transport Ca2+. This Review presents evidence to the contrary and addresses the question: which Ca2+ channels and pumps should be targeted?
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                11 January 2018
                January 2018
                : 19
                : 1
                Affiliations
                Laboratory of General Physiology, Department of Biology and Biotechnology “L. Spallanzani”, University of Pavia, I-27100 Pavia, Italy; francesco.moccia@ 123456unipv.it ; Tel.: +39-382-39-0382-987527
                Article
                ijms-19-00217
                10.3390/ijms19010217
                5796166
                29324706
                © 2018 by the author.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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