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      Effects of Injecting Thymulin into the Anterior or Medial Hypothalamus or the Pituitary on Induced Ovulation in Prepubertal Mice

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          Abstract

          In prepubertal mice, subcutaneous thymulin injection before equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) treatment simulates ovulation; seemingly, the thymulin could be acting at the hypothalamus-pituitary axis level. Objective: This study was designed to analyze the effects of injecting thymulin into the hypothalamus or pituitary on induced ovulation of prepubertal mice. Method: Female mice, 19 days old, were anesthetized with ether and injected with saline solution or thymulin into the anterior or medial hypothalamus or the pituitary and treated with eCG when 20 days old. The ova shed were counted and serum concentrations of 17β-estradiol were measured. In the ovaries, the morphometrical analysis was performed and the atresia evaluated. Results: Ether anesthesia treatment blocked eCG-induced ovulation in almost all animals. Mice anesthetized and treated with eCG and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) ovulated a full quota of ova. Injecting saline solution into the anterior or medial hypothalamus or the pituitary did not reduce the blocking effects of ether anesthesia on induced ovulation, but the incidence of atretic follicles was higher. Injecting thymulin directly into the anterior hypothalamus did not restore ovulation, nor diminish the number of atretic follicles. In contrast, injecting thymulin into the medial hypothalamus restored the ovulation ratio and decreased the percentage of atretic follicles. Similar results were obtained by injecting thymulin into the pituitary, though thymulin treatment in the pituitary resulted in a higher number of ova shed and lower follicular atresia. Conclusion: The present results suggest that thymulin acts at the medial hypothalamus level, facilitating the release of GnRH and at the pituitary level regulating gonadotrophin release.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Thymus and reproduction: sex-linked dysgenesia of the gonad after neonatal thymectomy in mice.

          Neonatal thymectomy of mice, when no ectopic thymus existed, constantly resulted in developmental arrest of the ovary but not of the testis; it also caused sterility in the female. The ovaries of thymectomized mice were extremely small and were characterized by absence of follicles and corpora lutea. Such an ovarian dysgenesia was observed when the mice were thymectomized at 3 days of age, but not at 7 days or later; it was prevented by thymus grafting.
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            Contribution of zinc and other metals to the biological activity of the serum thymic factor.

            The serum thymic factor (FTS) utilized in its synthetic or natural form loses its biological activity in a rosette assay after treatment with a metal ion-chelating agent, Chelex 100. This activity is restored by the addition of Zn salts and, to a lesser extent, certain other metal salts. FTS activation is secondary to the binding of the metal to the peptide. The metal-to-peptide molar ratio of 1:1 provides the best activation. These data indicate the existence of two forms of FTS. The first one lacks Zn and is biologically inactive; the second one contains Zn and is biologically active, for which we propose the name of "thymulin" (FTS-Zn). The presence of Zn in synthetic FTS was confirmed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The interaction between Zn and FTS was further suggested by microanalysis demonstrating the presence of this metal in thymic reticuloepithelial cells.
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              Thymosin stimulates secretion of luteinizing hormone-releasing factor

               T. Low,  A. Miyake,  R Rebar (1981)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NIM
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                10.1159/issn.1021-7401
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                S. Karger AG
                1021-7401
                1423-0216
                2005
                September 2005
                21 September 2005
                : 12
                : 5
                : 314-320
                Affiliations
                aBiology of Reproduction Research Unit, Laboratory of Neuroimmuno-endocrinology, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza, and bDepartamento de Biología de la Reproducción, Instituto Nacional de las Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición ‘Salvador Zubirán’, México, México
                Article
                87111 Neuroimmunomodulation 2005;12:314–320
                10.1159/000087111
                16166812
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 40, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Paper

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