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      Acute kidney disease and renal recovery: consensus report of the Acute Disease Quality Initiative (ADQI) 16 Workgroup

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          Abstract

          Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease are increasingly recognized as interconnected entities and the term acute kidney disease (AKD) has been proposed to define ongoing pathophysiologic processes following an episode of AKI. In this Consensus statement, the Acute Disease Quality Initiative 16 Workgroup propose definitions and staging criteria for AKD, and strategies for the management of affected patients. They also make recommendations for areas of future research with the aims of improving understanding of the underlying processes and improving outcomes.

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          Most cited references115

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          Acute kidney injury increases risk of ESRD among elderly.

          Risk for ESRD among elderly patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) has not been studied in a large, representative sample. This study aimed to determine incidence rates and hazard ratios for developing ESRD in elderly individuals, with and without chronic kidney disease (CKD), who had AKI. In the 2000 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries, clinical conditions were identified using Medicare claims; ESRD treatment information was obtained from ESRD registration during 2 yr of follow-up. Our cohort of 233,803 patients were hospitalized in 2000, were aged > or = 67 yr on discharge, did not have previous ESRD or AKI, and were Medicare-entitled for > or = 2 yr before discharge. In this cohort, 3.1% survived to discharge with a diagnosis of AKI, and 5.3 per 1000 developed ESRD. Among patients who received treatment for ESRD, 25.2% had a previous history of AKI. After adjustment for age, gender, race, diabetes, and hypertension, the hazard ratio for developing ESRD was 41.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 34.6 to 49.1) for patients with AKI and CKD relative to those without kidney disease, 13.0 (95% CI 10.6 to 16.0) for patients with AKI and without previous CKD, and 8.4 (95% CI 7.4 to 9.6) for patients with CKD and without AKI. In summary, elderly individuals with AKI, particularly those with previously diagnosed CKD, are at significantly increased risk for ESRD, suggesting that episodes of AKI may accelerate progression of renal disease.
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            Classifying AKI by Urine Output versus Serum Creatinine Level.

            Severity of AKI is determined by the magnitude of increase in serum creatinine level or decrease in urine output. However, patients manifesting both oliguria and azotemia and those in which these impairments are persistent are more likely to have worse disease. Thus, we investigated the relationship of AKI severity and duration across creatinine and urine output domains with the risk for RRT and likelihood of renal recovery and survival using a large, academic medical center database of critically ill patients. We analyzed electronic records from 32,045 patients treated between 2000 and 2008, of which 23,866 (74.5%) developed AKI. We classified patients by levels of serum creatinine and/or urine output according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes staging criteria for AKI. In-hospital mortality and RRT rates increased from 4.3% and 0%, respectively, for no AKI to 51.1% and 55.3%, respectively, when serum creatinine level and urine output both indicated stage 3 AKI. Both short- and long-term outcomes were worse when patients had any stage of AKI defined by both criteria. Duration of AKI was also a significant predictor of long-term outcomes irrespective of severity. We conclude that short- and long-term risk of death or RRT is greatest when patients meet both the serum creatinine level and urine output criteria for AKI and when these abnormalities persist.
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              Increased risk of death and de novo chronic kidney disease following reversible acute kidney injury.

              Acute kidney injury increases mortality risk among those with established chronic kidney disease. In this study we used a propensity score-matched cohort method to retrospectively evaluate the risks of death and de novo chronic kidney disease after reversible, hospital-associated acute kidney injury among patients with normal pre-hospitalization kidney function. Of 30,207 discharged patients alive at 90 days, 1610 with reversible acute kidney injury that resolved within the 90 days were successfully matched across multiple parameters with 3652 control patients who had not experienced acute kidney injury. Median follow-up was 3.3 and 3.4 years (injured and control groups, respectively). In Cox proportional hazard models, the risk of death associated with reversible acute kidney injury was significant (hazard ratio 1.50); however, adjustment for the development of chronic kidney injury during follow-up attenuated this risk (hazard ratio 1.18). Reversible acute kidney injury was associated with a significant risk of de novo chronic kidney disease (hazard ratio 1.91). Thus, a resolved episode of hospital-associated acute kidney injury has important implications for the longitudinal surveillance of patients without preexisting, clinically evident kidney disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Nephrology
                Nat Rev Nephrol
                Springer Nature
                1759-5061
                1759-507X
                February 27 2017
                February 27 2017
                :
                :
                Article
                10.1038/nrneph.2017.2
                28239173
                847e4de4-7b86-4cae-bf80-f36f2c8770bd
                © 2017
                History

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