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      Nonverbale Synchronie und Musik-Erleben im klassischen Konzert Translated title: Non-Verbal Synchrony and Musical Experience in Classical Concerts


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          Die Praxis der Musikrezeption im Rahmen klassischer Konzerte ist von restriktiven Verhaltenskonventionen geprägt. Aktuelle kognitionswissenschaftliche und philosophische Ansätze, welche Musik-Erleben als verkörpert oder als über mehrere Individuen verteilt konzeptualisieren, scheinen daher für die Erklärung des Musik-Erlebens in klassischen Konzerten weniger geeignet. Vor diesem Hintergrund untersuchte die vorliegende explorative Studie das Auftreten koordinierter Körperbewegungen als nonverbale Synchronie im Rahmen eines klassischen Konzertes und den Zusammenhang zwischen den Synchronien innerhalb des Publikums und Aspekten des subjektiven Musik-Erlebens. Im Rahmen eines Forschungskonzerts wurden 22 Teilnehmern verschiedene Kammermusikwerke präsentiert, sowie dabei Selbstauskünfte zu Aspekten des Musik-Erlebens erhoben und Körperbewegungen mit drei stationären Kameras erfasst. Non-verbale Synchronie, als Indikator für koordinierte Körperbewegungen, wurde über die Korrelation von Bewegungsenergie-Zeitreihen ermittelt. Die Bewegungsenergie wurde als Anzahl der sich ändernden Pixel aufeinanderfolgender Frames operationalisiert. Es zeigte sich stark ausgeprägte Synchronie zwischen den Musikern sowie eine Synchronie kleiner bis mittlerer Effektstärke innerhalb des Publikums. Zwischen den Musikern und dem Publikum konnte hingegen keine Synchronie festgestellt werden. In Bezug auf das Verhältnis von Synchronie innerhalb des Publikums und dem subjektiven Musik-Erleben zeigten sich signifikante negative Zusammenhänge zwischen dem Gefühl der Verbundenheit mit den Musikern, dem Grad der Absorption und der Synchronisierung innerhalb des Publikums. Dies lässt sich dahingehend interpretieren, dass bei einem stärkeren Fokus der Aufmerksamkeit und des Erlebens auf das Bühnengeschehen die Synchronisierung mit den anderen Mitgliedern des Publikums abnimmt. Die Ergebnisse dieser Studie stehen im Einklang mit Theorien zum verkörperten Musik-Erleben, sie stützen jedoch Ansätze nicht, die darunter die Nachahmung der klangproduzierenden Bewegungen der Musiker verstehen. Ebenso stehen die Befunde nicht in Einklang mit Ansätzen zum verteilten Musik-Erleben. Abschließend werden die Ergebnisse hinsichtlich ihrer musikpraktischen Relevanz bezüglich einer Diversifizierung klassischer Konzerte diskutiert.

          Translated abstract

          Bodily movements and communication are not part of the accepted behavioral practice in classical concerts and therefore are avoided or suppressed by audience members. In this regard, recent approaches in cognitive science and aesthetics that conceptualize musical experience as embodied or distributed among several agents do not seem to be appropriate for the description of musical experience within classical concerts. Against this background we investigated whether coordinated bodily movements do occur in classical concerts within the audience and between audience members and musicians. Furthermore, we explored potential associations between non-verbal synchronies and various aspects of musical experience. We conducted a research concert with diverse pieces of chamber music being presented to 22 participants. After each piece, the participants filled out a questionnaire covering several aspects of their concert experience (liking of the piece and the interpretation, familiarity, feelings of connectedness to the musicians and co-listeners, absorption, impulse to move). Stage and audience were recorded with three stationary video-cameras. As an indicator for coordinated bodily movements, we measured nonverbal synchrony as correlations of motion energy time series. Motion energy was operationalized as amount of pixel-changes in consecutive frames of the video-signal. This method allowed us to investigate non-verbal synchronies among the musicians, within the audience and between audience and musicians. We found strong synchronization between musicians and small to medium synchronization within the audience. No synchronization was found between musicians and the audience. With regard to the relation of non-verbal synchrony and aspects of musical-experience, the association of individual synchronization with absorption and the feeling of being connected to the musicians was significantly negative. Consequently, a focus on the music performance might be interpreted as inhibiting the synchronization with co-listeners. Our findings are consistent with theories of embodied musical experience. However, they do not bolster varieties of embodied simulation theory, which assume a mimesis of sound producing actions. Furthermore, our results do not support the idea of musical experience being distributed among several agents when jointly listening to music in concert. This explorative study offers ways to empirically investigate embodied and distributed approaches to musical experience in a live concert setting. In the light of recent attempts to diversify classical concert experience, also by delivering potentials of interaction and bodily movement, it is also of relevance for musical practice.

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          Most cited references40

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          Synchrony and cooperation.

          Armies, churches, organizations, and communities often engage in activities-for example, marching, singing, and dancing-that lead group members to act in synchrony with each other. Anthropologists and sociologists have speculated that rituals involving synchronous activity may produce positive emotions that weaken the psychological boundaries between the self and the group. This article explores whether synchronous activity may serve as a partial solution to the free-rider problem facing groups that need to motivate their members to contribute toward the collective good. Across three experiments, people acting in synchrony with others cooperated more in subsequent group economic exercises, even in situations requiring personal sacrifice. Our results also showed that positive emotions need not be generated for synchrony to foster cooperation. In total, the results suggest that acting in synchrony with others can increase cooperation by strengthening social attachment among group members.
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            The rhythm of joint action: Synchrony promotes cooperative ability

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              Action representation of sound: audiomotor recognition network while listening to newly acquired actions.

              The discovery of audiovisual mirror neurons in monkeys gave rise to the hypothesis that premotor areas are inherently involved not only when observing actions but also when listening to action-related sound. However, the whole-brain functional formation underlying such "action-listening" is not fully understood. In addition, previous studies in humans have focused mostly on relatively simple and overexperienced everyday actions, such as hand clapping or door knocking. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to ask whether the human action-recognition system responds to sounds found in a more complex sequence of newly acquired actions. To address this, we chose a piece of music as a model set of acoustically presentable actions and trained non-musicians to play it by ear. We then monitored brain activity in subjects while they listened to the newly acquired piece. Although subjects listened to the music without performing any movements, activation was found bilaterally in the frontoparietal motor-related network (including Broca's area, the premotor region, the intraparietal sulcus, and the inferior parietal region), consistent with neural circuits that have been associated with action observations, and may constitute the human mirror neuron system. Presentation of the practiced notes in a different order activated the network to a much lesser degree, whereas listening to an equally familiar but motorically unknown music did not activate this network. These findings support the hypothesis of a "hearing-doing" system that is highly dependent on the individual's motor repertoire, gets established rapidly, and consists of Broca's area as its hub.

                Author and article information

                Jahrb Musik
                Jahrbuch Musikpsychologie
                Jahrb. Musik.
                25 January 2019
                : 28 ( titleID: Musikpsychologie — Musik und Bewegung )
                : e18
                [a ]Musikabteilung, Max-Planck-Institut für empirische Ästhetik, Frankfurt am Main, Deutschland
                [b ]Institut für Musikinformatik und Musikwissenschaft, Hochschule für Musik Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Deutschland
                [c ]Experimentelle Psychologie, Universitätsklinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Universität Bern , Bern, Schweiz
                [d ]Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Freiburg, Deutschland
                Author notes
                [* ]Institut für Musikinformatik und Musikwissenschaft, Hochschule für Musik Karlsruhe, Am Schloss Gottesaue 7, 76131 Karlsruhe, Deutschland. seibert@ 123456hfm.eu
                Copyright @ 2019

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 4.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 19 April 2018
                : 29 November 2018
                Forschungsberichte zum Themenschwerpunkt

                concert research,verkörpertes Musik-Erleben,embodied musical experiencing,Bewegungsenergie,distributed musical experiencing,nonverbale Synchronie,motion energy,Konzertforschung,non-verbal synchrony,verteiltes Musik-Erleben


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