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      Early osseointegration driven by the surface chemistry and wettability of dental implants

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          The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of two different commercially available dental implants on osseointegration.

          The surfaces were

          sandblasting and acid etching (Group 1) and sandblasting and acid etching, then maintained in an isotonic solution of 0.9% sodium chloride (Group 2).

          Material and Methods

          X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed for surface chemistry analysis. Surface morphology and topography was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy (CM), respectively. Contact angle analysis (CAA) was employed for wetting evaluation. Bone-implant-contact (BIC) and bone area fraction occupied (BAFO) analysis were performed on thin sections (30 μm) 14 and 28 days after the installation of 10 implants from each group (n=20) in rabbits’ tibias. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA at the 95% level of significance considering implantation time and implant surface as independent variables.


          Group 2 showed 3-fold less carbon on the surface and a markedly enhanced hydrophilicity compared to Group 1 but a similar surface roughness (p>0.05). BIC and BAFO levels in Group 2 at 14 days were similar to those in Group 1 at 28 days. After 28 days of installation, BIC and BAFO measurements of Group 2 were approximately 1.5-fold greater than in Group 1 (p<0.05).


          The surface chemistry and wettability implants of Group 2 accelerate osseointegration and increase the area of the bone-to-implant interface when compared to those of Group 1.

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          Most cited references 86

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          Effects of titanium surface topography on bone integration: a systematic review.

          To analyse possible effects of titanium surface topography on bone integration. Our analyses were centred on a PubMed search that identified 1184 publications of assumed relevance; of those, 1064 had to be disregarded because they did not accurately present in vivo data on bone response to surface topography. The remaining 120 papers were read and analysed, after removal of an additional 20 papers that mainly dealt with CaP-coated and Zr implants; 100 papers remained and formed the basis for this paper. The bone response to differently configurated surfaces was mainly evaluated by histomorphometry (bone-to-implant contact), removal torque and pushout/pullout tests. A huge number of the experimental investigations have demonstrated that the bone response was influenced by the implant surface topography; smooth (S(a) 1-2 microm) surfaces showed stronger bone responses than rough (S(a)>2 microm) in some studies. One limitation was that it was difficult to compare many studies because of the varying quality of surface evaluations; a surface termed 'rough' in one study was not uncommonly referred to as 'smooth' in another; many investigators falsely assumed that surface preparation per se identified the roughness of the implant; and many other studies used only qualitative techniques such as SEM. Furthermore, filtering techniques differed or only height parameters (S(a), R(a)) were reported. * Surface topography influences bone response at the micrometre level. * Some indications exist that surface topography influences bone response at the nanometre level. * The majority of published papers present an inadequate surface characterization. * Measurement and evaluation techniques need to be standardized. * Not only height descriptive parameters but also spatial and hybrid ones should be used.
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            High surface energy enhances cell response to titanium substrate microstructure.

            Titanium (Ti) is used for implantable devices because of its biocompatible oxide surface layer. TiO2 surfaces that have a complex microtopography increase bone-to-implant contact and removal torque forces in vivo and induce osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Studies examining osteoblast response to controlled surface chemistries indicate that hydrophilic surfaces are osteogenic, but TiO2 surfaces produced until now exhibit low surface energy because of adsorbed hydrocarbons and carbonates from the ambient atmosphere or roughness induced hydrophobicity. Novel hydroxylated/hydrated Ti surfaces were used to retain high surface energy of TiO2. Osteoblasts grown on this modified surface exhibited a more differentiated phenotype characterized by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin and generated an osteogenic microenvironment through higher production of PGE2 and TGF-beta1. Moreover, 1alpha,25OH2D3 increased these effects in a manner that was synergistic with high surface energy. This suggests that increased bone formation observed on modified Ti surfaces in vivo is due in part to stimulatory effects of high surface energy on osteoblasts. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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              Intra-osseous anchorage of dental prostheses. I. Experimental studies.


                Author and article information

                J Appl Oral Sci
                J Appl Oral Sci
                Journal of Applied Oral Science
                Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru da Universidade de São Paulo
                May-Jun 2015
                May-Jun 2015
                : 23
                : 3
                : 279-287
                [1 ]- Graduate Program in Dentistry, Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, RJ, Brazil.
                [2 ]- Orthodontics Department, Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, RJ, Brazil.
                [3 ]- National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology, Duque de Caxias, RJ, Brazil.
                [4 ]- Dental Clinical Research Center, Dentistry School, Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
                Author notes
                Corresponding address: Suelen Cristina Sartoretto - Rua Mario Santos Braga, 28/3˚ andar - Center - Niteroi - RJ - Brazil - 24020-140 - Phone: +55 (21) 2629-9803 - Fax: +55 (21) 2629-9803 - e-mail: susartoretto@

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 30, Pages: 9
                Original Articles


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