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      Renal Denervation for Chronic Heart Failure: Background and Pathophysiological Rationale

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          Abstract

          The activation of the sympathetic nervous system is associated with cardiovascular hospitalizations and death in heart failure. Renal denervation has been shown to effectively reduce sympathetic overdrive in certain patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Pilot trials investigating renal denervation as a potential treatment approach for heart failure were initiated. Heart failure comorbidities like obstructive sleep apnea, metabolic syndrome and arrhythmias could also be targets for renal denervation, because these occurrences are also mediated by the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Therefore, renal denervation in heart failure is worthy of further investigation, although its effectiveness still has to be proven. Herein, we describe the pathophysiological rationale and the effect of renal denervation on surrogates of the heart failure syndrome.

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          Most cited references 48

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          Prospective study of the association between sleep-disordered breathing and hypertension.

          Sleep-disordered breathing is prevalent in the general population and has been linked to chronically elevated blood pressure in cross-sectional epidemiologic studies. We performed a prospective, population-based study of the association between objectively measured sleep-disordered breathing and hypertension (defined as a laboratory-measured blood pressure of at least 140/90 mm Hg or the use of antihypertensive medications). We analyzed data on sleep-disordered breathing, blood pressure, habitus, and health history at base line and after four years of follow-up in 709 participants of the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study (and after eight years of follow-up in the case of 184 of these participants). Participants were assessed overnight by 18-channel polysomnography for sleep-disordered breathing, as defined by the apnea-hypopnea index (the number of episodes of apnea and hypopnea per hour of sleep). The odds ratios for the presence of hypertension at the four-year follow-up study according to the apnea-hypopnea index at base line were estimated after adjustment for base-line hypertension status, body-mass index, neck and waist circumference, age, sex, and weekly use of alcohol and cigarettes. Relative to the reference category of an apnea-hypopnea index of 0 events per hour at base line, the odds ratios for the presence of hypertension at follow-up were 1.42 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.13 to 1.78) with an apnea-hypopnea index of 0.1 to 4.9 events per hour at base line as compared with none, 2.03 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.29 to 3.17) with an apnea-hypopnea index of 5.0 to 14.9 events per hour, and 2.89 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.46 to 5.64) with an apnea-hypopnea index of 15.0 or more events per hour. We found a dose-response association between sleep-disordered breathing at base line and the presence of hypertension four years later that was independent of known confounding factors. The findings suggest that sleep-disordered breathing is likely to be a risk factor for hypertension and consequent cardiovascular morbidity in the general population.
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            Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation for resistant hypertension: a multicentre safety and proof-of-principle cohort study.

            Renal sympathetic hyperactivity is associated with hypertension and its progression, chronic kidney disease, and heart failure. We did a proof-of-principle trial of therapeutic renal sympathetic denervation in patients with resistant hypertension (ie, systolic blood pressure >/=160 mm Hg on three or more antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic) to assess safety and blood-pressure reduction effectiveness. We enrolled 50 patients at five Australian and European centres; 5 patients were excluded for anatomical reasons (mainly on the basis of dual renal artery systems). Patients received percutaneous radiofrequency catheter-based treatment between June, 2007, and November, 2008, with subsequent follow-up to 1 year. We assessed the effectiveness of renal sympathetic denervation with renal noradrenaline spillover in a subgroup of patients. Primary endpoints were office blood pressure and safety data before and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after procedure. Renal angiography was done before, immediately after, and 14-30 days after procedure, and magnetic resonance angiogram 6 months after procedure. We assessed blood-pressure lowering effectiveness by repeated measures ANOVA. This study is registered in Australia and Europe with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT 00483808 and NCT 00664638. In treated patients, baseline mean office blood pressure was 177/101 mm Hg (SD 20/15), (mean 4.7 antihypertensive medications); estimated glomerular filtration rate was 81 mL/min/1.73m(2) (SD 23); and mean reduction in renal noradrenaline spillover was 47% (95% CI 28-65%). Office blood pressures after procedure were reduced by -14/-10, -21/-10, -22/-11, -24/-11, and -27/-17 mm Hg at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, respectively. In the five non-treated patients, mean rise in office blood pressure was +3/-2, +2/+3, +14/+9, and +26/+17 mm Hg at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months, respectively. One intraprocedural renal artery dissection occurred before radiofrequency energy delivery, without further sequelae. There were no other renovascular complications. Catheter-based renal denervation causes substantial and sustained blood-pressure reduction, without serious adverse events, in patients with resistant hypertension. Prospective randomised clinical trials are needed to investigate the usefulness of this procedure in the management of this condition.
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              Plasma norepinephrine as a guide to prognosis in patients with chronic congestive heart failure.

              Hemodynamics, plasma norepinephrine, and plasma renin activity were measured at supine rest in 106 patients (83 men and 23 women) with moderate to severe congestive heart failure. During follow-up lasting 1 to 62 months, 60 patients died (57 per cent); 47 per cent of the deaths were sudden, and 45 per cent were related to progressive heart failure. Statistically unrelated to the risk of mortality were cause of disease (60 patients had coronary disease, and 46 had cardiomyopathy), age (mean, 54.8 years), cardiac index (mean, 2.11 liters per minute per square meter of body-surface area), pulmonary wedge pressure (mean, 24.5 mm Hg), and mean arterial pressure (mean, 83.2 mm Hg). A multivariate analysis of the five significant univariate prognosticators--heart rate (mean, 84.4 beats per minute), plasma renin activity (mean, 15.4 ng per milliliter per hour), plasma norepinephrine (mean, 700 pg per milliliter), serum sodium (mean, 135.7 mmol per liter), and stroke-work index (mean, 21.0 g-meters per square meter)--found only plasma norepinephrine to be independently (P = 0.002) related to the subsequent risk of mortality. Norepinephrine was also higher in patients who died from progressive heart failure than in those who died suddenly. These data suggest that a single resting venous blood sample showing the plasma norepinephrine concentration provides a better guide to prognosis than other commonly measured indexes of cardiac performance.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Korean Circ J
                Korean Circ J
                KCJ
                Korean Circulation Journal
                The Korean Society of Cardiology
                1738-5520
                1738-5555
                January 2017
                02 December 2016
                : 47
                : 1
                : 9-15
                Affiliations
                Departments of Internal Medicine III, Cardiology, Angiology, and Intensive Care, Saarland University Hospital, Homburg/Saar, Germany.
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Michael Böhm, MD, Departments of Internal Medicine III, Cardiology, Angiology, and Intensive Care, Saarland University Hospital, Kirrberger Str., Geb. 40, 66421 Homburg/Saar, Germany. Tel: 49-6841-16-15031, Fax: 49-6841-16-15032, michael.boehm@ 123456uks.eu
                Article
                10.4070/kcj.2016.0231
                5287193
                Copyright © 2017 The Korean Society of Cardiology

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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