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Sarcopenia diagnosed using masseter muscle area predictive of early mortality following severe traumatic brain injury

, , MD *

Neural Regeneration Research

Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd

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      Frailty as a predictor of surgical outcomes in older patients.

      Preoperative risk assessment is important yet inexact in older patients because physiologic reserves are difficult to measure. Frailty is thought to estimate physiologic reserves, although its use has not been evaluated in surgical patients. We designed a study to determine if frailty predicts surgical complications and enhances current perioperative risk models. We prospectively measured frailty in 594 patients (age 65 years or older) presenting to a university hospital for elective surgery between July 2005 and July 2006. Frailty was classified using a validated scale (0 to 5) that included weakness, weight loss, exhaustion, low physical activity, and slowed walking speed. Patients scoring 4 to 5 were classified as frail, 2 to 3 were intermediately frail, and 0 to 1 were nonfrail. Main outcomes measures were 30-day surgical complications, length of stay, and discharge disposition. Multiple logistic regression (complications and discharge) and negative binomial regression (length of stay) were done to analyze frailty and postoperative outcomes associations. Preoperative frailty was associated with an increased risk for postoperative complications (intermediately frail: odds ratio [OR] 2.06; 95% CI 1.18-3.60; frail: OR 2.54; 95% CI 1.12-5.77), length of stay (intermediately frail: incidence rate ratio 1.49; 95% CI 1.24-1.80; frail: incidence rate ratio 1.69; 95% CI 1.28-2.23), and discharge to a skilled or assisted-living facility after previously living at home (intermediately frail: OR 3.16; 95% CI 1.0-9.99; frail: OR 20.48; 95% CI 5.54-75.68). Frailty improved predictive power (p < 0.01) of each risk index (ie, American Society of Anesthesiologists, Lee, and Eagle scores). Frailty independently predicts postoperative complications, length of stay, and discharge to a skilled or assisted-living facility in older surgical patients and enhances conventional risk models. Assessing frailty using a standardized definition can help patients and physicians make more informed decisions. Copyright (c) 2010 American College of Surgeons. All rights reserved.
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        Traumatic Brain Injury–Related Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Deaths — United States, 2007 and 2013

        Problem/Condition Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has short- and long-term adverse clinical outcomes, including death and disability. TBI can be caused by a number of principal mechanisms, including motor-vehicle crashes, falls, and assaults. This report describes the estimated incidence of TBI-related emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths during 2013 and makes comparisons to similar estimates from 2007. Reporting Period 2007 and 2013. Description of System State-based administrative health care data were used to calculate estimates of TBI-related ED visits and hospitalizations by principal mechanism of injury, age group, sex, and injury intent. Categories of injury intent included unintentional (motor-vehicle crashes, falls, being struck by or against an object, mechanism unspecified), intentional (self-harm and assault/homicide), and undetermined intent. These health records come from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project’s National Emergency Department Sample and National Inpatient Sample. TBI-related death analyses used CDC multiple-cause-of-death public-use data files, which contain death certificate data from all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Results In 2013, a total of approximately 2.8 million TBI-related ED visits, hospitalizations, and deaths (TBI-EDHDs) occurred in the United States. This consisted of approximately 2.5 million TBI-related ED visits, approximately 282,000 TBI-related hospitalizations, and approximately 56,000 TBI-related deaths. TBIs were diagnosed in nearly 2.8 million (1.9%) of the approximately 149 million total injury- and noninjury-related EDHDs that occurred in the United States during 2013. Rates of TBI-EDHDs varied by age, with the highest rates observed among persons aged ≥75 years (2,232.2 per 100,000 population), 0–4 years (1,591.5), and 15–24 years (1,080.7). Overall, males had higher age-adjusted rates of TBI-EDHDs (959.0) compared with females (810.8) and the most common principal mechanisms of injury for all age groups included falls (413.2, age-adjusted), being struck by or against an object (142.1, age-adjusted), and motor-vehicle crashes (121.7, age-adjusted). The age-adjusted rate of ED visits was higher in 2013 (787.1) versus 2007 (534.4), with fall-related TBIs among persons aged ≥75 years accounting for 17.9% of the increase in the number of TBI-related ED visits. The number and rate of TBI-related hospitalizations also increased among persons aged ≥75 years (from 356.9 in 2007 to 454.4 in 2013), primarily because of falls. Whereas motor-vehicle crashes were the leading cause of TBI-related deaths in 2007 in both number and rate, in 2013, intentional self-harm was the leading cause in number and rate. The overall age-adjusted rate of TBI-related deaths for all ages decreased from 17.9 in 2007 to 17.0 in 2013; however, age-adjusted TBI-related death rates attributable to falls increased from 3.8 in 2007 to 4.5 in 2013, primarily among older adults. Although the age-adjusted rate of TBI-related deaths attributable to motor-vehicle crashes decreased from 5.0 in 2007 to 3.4 in 2013, the age-adjusted rate of TBI-related ED visits attributable to motor-vehicle crashes increased from 83.8 in 2007 to 99.5 in 2013. The age-adjusted rate of TBI-related hospitalizations attributable to motor-vehicle crashes decreased from 23.5 in 2007 to 18.8 in 2013. Interpretation Progress has been made to prevent motor-vehicle crashes, resulting in a decrease in the number of TBI-related hospitalizations and deaths from 2007 to 2013. However, during the same time, the number and rate of older adult fall-related TBIs have increased substantially. Although considerable public interest has focused on sports-related concussion in youth, the findings in this report suggest that TBIs attributable to older adult falls, many of which result in hospitalization and death, should receive public health attention. Public Health Actions The increase in the number of fall-related TBIs in older adults suggests an urgent need to enhance fall-prevention efforts in that population. Multiple effective interventions have been identified, and CDC has developed the STEADI initiative (Stopping Elderly Accidents Deaths and Injuries) as a comprehensive strategy that incorporates empirically supported clinical guidelines and scientifically tested interventions to help primary care providers address their patients’ fall risk through the identification of modifiable risk factors and implementation of effective interventions (e.g., exercise, medication management, and Vitamin D supplementation).
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          Reasons for the degeneration of ageing skeletal muscle: a central role for IGF-1 signalling.

          This paper examines two major possibilities for the striking loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength that occurs in very old animals and humans. It is concluded that muscle regeneration is not significantly impaired with age. Instead, it seems that individual myofibres undergo atrophy, with selective death of the fast type 2B myofibres, due to the combined effects of many age-related changes the main causes being: nutrition (under-nutrition and lack of vitamin D), decreased hormone levels (e.g growth hormone, testosterone), reduced physical activity, and a loss of nerves that innervate the muscles. The discussion focusses on the central role of a local muscle form of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in muscle hypertrophy, atrophy and motorneurone loss. Reduced IGF-I signalling is involved in muscle atrophy and results from decreased muscle exercise, reduced growth hormone and insulin levels, reduced vitamin D, and treatment with drugs like corticosteroids, dexamethasone, and cyclosporin. In addition, elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines like TNF-alpha and IL-6 can cause muscle wasting (cachexia) although this is usually associated with disease, and TNF-alpha may also act (at least in part) by inhibiting IGF-I signalling. The possible clinical prevention of age-related muscle wasting (and associated motorneurone loss) by the locally acting muscle isoform of IGF-I is discussed.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
            Division of Acute Care Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
            Author notes
            [* ] Correspondence to: Parker Hu, phu@ 123456uabmc.edu .
            Journal
            Neural Regen Res
            Neural Regen Res
            NRR
            Neural Regeneration Research
            Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
            1673-5374
            1876-7958
            December 2018
            : 13
            : 12
            : 2089-2090
            30323130
            6199947
            NRR-13-2089
            10.4103/1673-5374.241451
            Copyright: © Neural Regeneration Research

            This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

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