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      Mediating Roles of Gratitude and Social Support in the Relation Between Survivor Guilt and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Posttraumatic Growth Among Adolescents After the Ya’an Earthquake


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          Objective: This study aims to examine the mediating roles of gratitude and social support in the relationship between survivor guilt and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as the relationship between survivor guilt and posttraumatic growth (PTG).

          Methods: The current study used self-report questionnaires to investigate 706 adolescent survivors of Lushan county three and a half years after the Ya’an earthquake. The structural equation model was used to evaluate the relations between survivor guilt, gratitude and social support in PTSD and PTG.

          Results: The results indicated that survivor guilt had a positive effect on both PTSD and PTG. Gratitude partly mediated the relation between survivor guilt and both PTSD and PTG; social support partly mediated the relation between survivor guilt and PTG but not PTSD as well as the relation between gratitude and PTG.

          Conclusion: Survivor guilt has a double-edged sword effect. Survivor guilt affects PTSD and PTG through gratitude, and it could affect PTG but not PTSD through social support. Gratitude decreases PTSD and increases PTG, whereas social support only increases PTG.

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          Most cited references60

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          The grateful disposition: a conceptual and empirical topography.

          In four studies, the authors examined the correlates of the disposition toward gratitude. Study I revealed that self-ratings and observer ratings of the grateful disposition are associated with positive affect and well-being, prosocial behaviors and traits, and religiousness/spirituality. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large nonstudent sample. Study 3 yielded similar results to Studies I and 2 and provided evidence that gratitude is negatively associated with envy and materialistic attitudes. Study 4 yielded evidence that these associations persist after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity. Neuroticism/negative affectivity, and Agreeableness. The development of the Gratitude Questionnaire, a unidimensional measure with good psychometric properties, is also described.
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            Positive change following trauma and adversity: a review.

            Empirical studies (n = 39) that documented positive change following trauma and adversity (e.g., posttraumatic growth, stress-related growth, perceived benefit, thriving; collectively described as adversarial growth) were reviewed. The review indicated that cognitive appraisal variables (threat, harm, and controllability), problem-focused, acceptance and positive reinterpretation coping, optimism, religion, cognitive processing, and positive affect were consistently associated with adversarial growth. The review revealed inconsistent associations between adversarial growth, sociodemographic variables (gender, age, education, and income), and psychological distress variables (e.g., depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder). However, the evidence showed that people who reported and maintained adversarial growth over time were less distressed subsequently. Methodological limitations and recommended future directions in adversarial growth research are discussed, and the implications of adversarial growth for clinical practice are briefly considered.
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              Gratitude in intermediate affective terrain: links of grateful moods to individual differences and daily emotional experience.

              Two studies were conducted to explore gratitude in daily mood and the relationships among various affective manifestations of gratitude. In Study 1, spiritual transcendence and a variety of positive affective traits were related to higher mean levels of gratitude across 21 days. Study 2 replicated these findings and revealed that on days when people had more grateful moods than was typical for them, they also reported more frequent daily episodes of grateful emotions, more intense gratitude per episode, and more people to whom they were grateful than was typical for them. In addition, gratitude as an affective trait appeared to render participants' grateful moods somewhat resistant to the effects of discrete emotional episodes of gratitude.

                Author and article information

                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                05 November 2018
                : 9
                : 2131
                Beijing Key Laboratory of Applied Experimental Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Beijing Normal University , Beijing, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Gianluca Castelnuovo, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Italy

                Reviewed by: Simon Moss, Charles Darwin University, Australia; Yuanyuan An, Nanjing Normal University, China

                *Correspondence: Xinchun Wu, xcwu@ 123456bnu.edu.cn

                This article was submitted to Clinical and Health Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology

                Copyright © 2018 Wang, Wu and Tian.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 27 May 2018
                : 16 October 2018
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 73, Pages: 8, Words: 0
                Original Research

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                survivor guilt,gratitude,social support,posttraumatic stress disorder,posttraumatic growth


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