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      Effects of time perspective and self-control on procrastination and Internet addiction


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          Background and aims

          College students experiencing stress show tendencies to procrastinate and can develop Internet addiction problems. This study investigated the structural relationship between time perspective and self-control on procrastination and Internet addiction.


          College students ( N = 377) residing in South Korea completed the following questionnaires: the Pathological Internet Use Behavior Symptom Scale for Adults, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, the Self-Control Rating Scale, and the Aitken Procrastination Inventory. The sample variance–covariance matrix was analyzed using AMOS 20.0.


          Time perspective had a direct effect on self-control and an indirect effect on Internet use and procrastination. In addition, self-control affected procrastination and Internet use.


          Individuals with a present-oriented time perspective tend to evidence poorer self-control, increasing the likelihood of procrastination and Internet addiction. Individuals with a future-oriented time perspective, on the other hand, tend to have stronger self-control, decreasing their risk of procrastination and Internet addiction.

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          Most cited references46

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          High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success.

          What good is self-control? We incorporated a new measure of individual differences in self-control into two large investigations of a broad spectrum of behaviors. The new scale showed good internal consistency and retest reliability. Higher scores on self-control correlated with a higher grade point average, better adjustment (fewer reports of psychopathology, higher self-esteem), less binge eating and alcohol abuse, better relationships and interpersonal skills, secure attachment, and more optimal emotional responses. Tests for curvilinearity failed to indicate any drawbacks of so-called overcontrol, and the positive effects remained after controlling for social desirability. Low self-control is thus a significant risk factor for a broad range of personal and interpersonal problems.
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            Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modelling

              • Record: found
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              Taking time seriously. A theory of socioemotional selectivity.

              Socioemotional selectivity theory claims that the perception of time plays a fundamental role in the selection and pursuit of social goals. According to the theory, social motives fall into 1 of 2 general categories--those related to the acquisition of knowledge and those related to the regulation of emotion. When time is perceived as open-ended, knowledge-related goals are prioritized. In contrast, when time is perceived as limited, emotional goals assume primacy. The inextricable association between time left in life and chronological age ensures age-related differences in social goals. Nonetheless, the authors show that the perception of time is malleable, and social goals change in both younger and older people when time constraints are imposed. The authors argue that time perception is integral to human motivation and suggest potential implications for multiple subdisciplines and research interests in social, developmental, cultural, cognitive, and clinical psychology.

                Author and article information

                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                10 April 2017
                June 2017
                : 6
                : 2
                : 229-236
                [ 1 ] National Forensic Service , Wonju, South Korea
                [ 2 ]Department of Psychology, Chung-Ang University , Seoul, South Korea
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Myoung-Ho Hyun; Department of Psychology, Chung-Ang University, 84 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul, South Korea; Phone: +82 10 2614 4126; Fax: +82 2 816 5124; E-mail: hyunmh@ 123456cau.ac.kr
                © 2017 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited.

                : 18 April 2016
                : 06 October 2016
                : 06 December 2016
                : 12 February 2017
                : 12 March 2017
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 7, Equations: 0, References: 43, Pages: 8
                Funding sources: This study was supported by a grant from the National Forensic Service (NFS2017PSY02), Ministry of the Interior, Republic of Korea.
                FULL-LENGTH REPORT

                Evolutionary Biology,Medicine,Psychology,Educational research & Statistics,Social & Behavioral Sciences
                time perspective,self-control,procrastination,Internet addiction


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