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      Treatment with Fluvastatin Rapidly Modulates, via Different Pathways, and in Dependence on the Baseline Level, Inflammation in Hemodialysis Patients

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          Abstract

          Background: Hemodialysis (HD) patients are frequently in an elevated inflammatory state which is correlated to the atherosclerosis-related and overall morbidity and mortality in this population. Statins, beyond their antilipidemic effects, are also considered to have anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and antioxidant properties. The individual response of HD patients to a short course of fluvastatin, the mechanisms involved in the immunomodulating and anti-inflammatory effects of this drug and the time interval to the appearance of these effects are investigated in this longitudinal study. Methods: In a group of 51 HD patients, fluvastatin 40 mg/day was administered for 4 weeks. Serial measurements of the lipid profile, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and serum oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), were performed before, during, and after the treatment period. Results: Total cholesterol was significantly reduced after 14 days of treatment with fluvastatin (from mean ± SD 216.7 ± 34.3 to 179.2 ± 42.3 mg/dl, p < 0.001). IL-6 and ox-LDL were reduced on day 28 (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively) and IL-10 was increased on day 14 (p = 0.05); CRP did not change significantly during the treatment period while sIL-6R was increased on day 28 of fluvastatin administration (p < 0.05). In a subgroup of patients with CRP, IL-6, sIL-6R, and ox-LDL baseline serum values ≧ the median and IL-10 ≤ the median, CRP was reduced on day 28 of fluvastatin treatment (p < 0.01), IL-6 and ox-LDL were reduced earlier, on day 14 (p = 0.05 and p < 0.05, respectively) while sIL-6R did not change significantly during the treatment period. Conclusions: Treatment with fluvastatin rapidly modulates inflammation in HD patients. Enhancement of anti-inflammatory mechanisms and attenuation of the inflammatory and oxidative state contribute to this modulation. Patients in an elevated baseline inflammatory state respond more rapidly and effectively to the treatment. This immediate and multi-potent action of the statins could be clinically useful in acute atherosclerosis complications or in the treatment of chronic inflammation in HD patients.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Pleiotropic effects of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase inhibitors.

          The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors or statins are potent inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis. Several large clinical trials have demonstrated the beneficial effects of statins in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. However, the overall clinical benefits observed with statin therapy appear to be greater than what might be expected from changes in lipid profile alone, suggesting that the beneficial effects of statins may extend beyond their effects on serum cholesterol levels. Indeed, recent experimental and clinical evidence indicates that some of the cholesterol-independent or "pleiotropic" effects of statins involve improving or restoring endothelial function, enhancing the stability of atherosclerotic plaques, and decreasing oxidative stress and vascular inflammation. Many of these pleiotropic effects of statins are mediated by their ability to block the synthesis of important isoprenoid intermediates, which serve as lipid attachments for a variety of intracellular signaling molecules. In particular, the inhibition of small GTP-binding proteins, Rho, Ras, and Rac, whose proper membrane localization and function are dependent on isoprenylation, may play an important role in mediating the direct cellular effects of statins on the vascular wall.
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            Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risks in chronic hemodialysis patients.

            Cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of death among chronic hemodialysis patients, yet the risk factors for these events have not been well established. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the relationship between several traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and the presence or history of cardiovascular events in 936 hemodialysis patients enrolled in the baseline phase of the Hemodialysis Study sponsored by the U.S. National Institutes of Health. The adjusted odds ratios for each of the selected risk factors were estimated using a multivariable logistic regression model, controlling for the remaining risk factors, clinical center, and years on dialysis. Forty percent of the patients had coronary heart disease. Nineteen percent had cerebrovascular disease, and 23% had peripheral vascular disease. As expected, diabetes and smoking were strongly associated with cardiovascular diseases. Increasing age was also an important contributor, especially in the group less than 55 years and in nondiabetic patients. Black race was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular diseases than non-blacks. Interestingly, neither serum total cholesterol nor predialysis systolic blood pressure was associated with coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, or peripheral vascular disease. Further estimation of the coronary risks in our cohort using the Framingham coronary point score suggests that traditional risk factors are inadequate predictors of coronary heart disease in hemodialysis patients. Some of the traditional coronary risk factors in the general population appear to be also applicable to the hemodialysis population, while other factors did not correlate with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in this cross-sectional study. Nontraditional risk factors, including the uremic milieu and perhaps the hemodialysis procedure itself, are likely to be contributory. Further studies are necessary to define the cardiovascular risk factors in order to devise preventive and interventional strategies for the chronic hemodialysis population.
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              The soluble interleukin 6 receptor: mechanisms of production and implications in disease.

              Interleukin 6 (IL-6) performs a prominent role during disease and has been described as both a pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine. A key feature in the regulation of IL-6 responses has been the identification of a soluble interleukin 6 receptor (sIL-6R), which forms a ligand-receptor complex with IL-6 that is capable of stimulating a variety of cellular responses including proliferation, differentiation and activation of inflammatory processes. Elevated sIL-6R levels have been documented in numerous clinical conditions indicating that its production is coordinated as part of a disease response. Thus, sIL-6R has the potential to regulate both local and systemic IL-6-mediated events. This review will outline the central role of sIL-6R in the coordination of IL-6 responses. Details relating to the mechanisms of sIL-6R production will be provided, while the potential significance of sIL-6R during the development of clinical conditions will be emphasized. We want to convey, therefore, that when thinking about the inflammatory capability of IL-6, it is essential to consider not only the action of IL-6 itself, but also the effect sIL-6R may have on cellular processes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2004
                December 2004
                07 January 2005
                : 22
                : 6
                : 518-524
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Nephrology, General Hospital of Athens; bDepartment of Medical Biopathology, Eginition Hospital, Medical School, University of Athens; cRenal Unit, Dragini Clinic, dRenal Unit, Blue Cross Hospital, and eRenal Unit, Alexandra General Hospital, Athens, Greece
                Article
                82166 Blood Purif 2004;22:518–524
                10.1159/000082166
                15557765
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 3, References: 20, Pages: 7
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/82166
                Categories
                Original Paper

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