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      Polymorphisms in Interleukin-1β and Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Genes Are Associated with Kidney Failure in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus

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          Background/Aim: Cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of interleukin (IL)-1 cluster genes on diabetic nephropathy in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: We investigated –511 C/T polymorphism of IL-1β and tandem repeat polymorphism in intron 2 of IL-1 receptor antagonist in type 2 DM patients with end-stage kidney failure as compared with patients without nephropathy. Results: The IL1B2 allele was found more frequently in patients with kidney failure than in controls (57.4 vs. 46.1%, p < 0.05). An excessive homozygous carriage of IL1B2 was found in patients with kidney failure when compared with controls (30.5 vs. 18.3%, p < 0.05). The allelic frequency of IL1RN*2 was also higher in cases than in controls without nephropathy (8.4 vs. 2.8 %, p < 0.05). The carriage rate of IL1RN*2 was significantly associated with an increased risk of kidney failure (15.8 vs. 5.6%; OR 3.19, 95% CI 1.24–8.17). The risk of kidney failure was highest in those carrying both IL1RN*2 and IL1B2 (OR 3.90, 95% CI 1.34–11.40). Conclusion: IL1B2 and IL1RN*2 genotypes of the IL-1 cluster genes are associated with diabetic nephropathy in Korean patients with type 2 DM.

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          Most cited references 18

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          The role of interleukin-1 in disease.

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            Diabetic nephropathy in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes: an epidemiological study.

            A follow-up of 1475 Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients diagnosed before 1953 (815 males, 660 females) and before the age of 31 years was conducted. All patients were seen at the Steno Memorial Hospital and were referred from all parts of Denmark; 91 (6%) could not be traced. The rest (94%) were followed until death or for at least 25 years; 249 (17%) were followed for greater than 40 years. Clinical diabetic nephropathy developed in 531 (41%) of the 1303 patients in whom sufficient information was available regarding proteinuria. Other causes of proteinuria were found in 3%, and 57% did not develop persistent proteinuria. The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy was 21% after 20-25 years of diabetes duration followed by a decline to 10% after 40 years. Two incidence peaks of the onset of proteinuria were seen, one after 16 and another after 32 years duration of diabetes and was low after 35 years duration. The cumulative incidence was 45% after 40 years of diabetes. A male preponderance was seen among patients with nephropathy. A significant difference in the pattern of annual incidence rates of diabetic nephropathy was seen, when groups with onset of diabetes before 1933, between 1933-1942, and 1943-1952, respectively, were compared. An association between daily insulin requirement and nephropathy incidence was found. Patients with nephropathy had a much poorer survival than those without proteinuria; 40 years after onset of diabetes, only 10% of patients who developed nephropathy were alive, whereas greater than 70% of patients who did not develop nephropathy survived.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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              Progression of diabetic nephropathy.

              Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of renal failure. The decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is highly variable, ranging from 2 to 20, with a median of 12 mL/min/year. The risk factors of losing filtration power (progression promoters) have not been clearly identified. Furthermore, information on optimal arterial blood pressure, glycemic control, and cholesterol levels are lacking. We measured GFR with (51)Cr-EDTA plasma clearance technique, blood pressure, albuminuria, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, and serum cholesterol every year for seven years (range 3 to 14 years) in 301 consecutive type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy recruited consecutively during 1983 through 1997. Diabetic nephropathy was diagnosed clinically if the following criteria were fulfilled: persistent albuminuria> 200 microg/min, presence of diabetic retinopathy, and no evidence of other kidney or renal tract disease. In total, 271 patients received antihypertensive treatment at the end of the observation period. Mean arterial blood pressure was 102 +/- 0.4 (SE) mm Hg. The average decline in GFR was 4.0 +/- 0.2 mL/min/year and even lower (1.9 +/- 0.5 mL/min/year) in the 30 persistently normotensive patients, none of whom had ever received antihypertensive treatment (P < 0.01). A multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between the decline in GFR and mean arterial blood pressure, albuminuria, glycosylated hemoglobin A(1c), and serum cholesterol during follow-up (R(adj)(2) = 0.29, P < or = 0.001). No threshold level for blood pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin A(1c), or serum cholesterol was demonstrated. A two-hit model with mean arterial blood pressure and glycosylated hemoglobin A(1c) below and above the median values (102 mm Hg and 9.2%, respectively) revealed a rate of decline in GFR of only 1.5 mL/min/year in the lowest stratum compared with 6.1 mL/min/year in the highest stratum (P < 0.001). The prognosis of diabetic nephropathy has improved during the past decades, predominantly because of effective antihypertensive treatment. Genuine normotensive patients have a slow progression of nephropathy. Several modifiable variables have been identified as progression promoters.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                August 2004
                17 September 2004
                : 24
                : 4
                : 410-414
                Departments of aNephrology and bEndocrinology, cEast-West Kidney Disease Research Institute, and dDepartment of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Kyung-Hee University, Seoul, Korea
                80044 Am J Nephrol 2004;24:410–414
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Tables: 4, References: 21, Pages: 5
                Self URI (application/pdf):
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Renal failure, Diabetic nephropathy, Interleukins, Polymorphisms


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