Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was measured in the plasma of 192 normal infants and children aged 1 day to 18 years. Plasma ANP was high during postnatal adaptation, particularly in premature infants. In 96 infants and children aged 4 months to 18 years, plasma ANP was similar to values obtained in 7 healthy adult volunteers (23.9 ± 11.9 vs. 25.7 ± 4.6 fmol/ml). There was no significant relationship between ANP and age. ANP is elevated about twofold in full-term neonates being 3–4 days of age, and returned to normal thereafter. It is concluded that ANP is raised during the postnatal adaptation. This hormone is possibly involved in the postnatal volume contraction and may antagonize vasoconstrictor hormones that are elevated during the postnatal period.