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      Behavioural flexibility in migratory behaviour in a long‐lived large herbivore

      1 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 2
      Journal of Animal Ecology
      Wiley

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          The operated Markov´s chains in economy (discrete chains of Markov with the income)

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            Migratory animals couple biodiversity and ecosystem functioning worldwide.

            Animal migrations span the globe, involving immense numbers of individuals from a wide range of taxa. Migrants transport nutrients, energy, and other organisms as they forage and are preyed upon throughout their journeys. These highly predictable, pulsed movements across large spatial scales render migration a potentially powerful yet underappreciated dimension of biodiversity that is intimately embedded within resident communities. We review examples from across the animal kingdom to distill fundamental processes by which migratory animals influence communities and ecosystems, demonstrating that they can uniquely alter energy flow, food-web topology and stability, trophic cascades, and the structure of metacommunities. Given the potential for migration to alter ecological networks worldwide, we suggest an integrative framework through which community dynamics and ecosystem functioning may explicitly consider animal migrations.
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              Application of random effects to the study of resource selection by animals.

              1. Resource selection estimated by logistic regression is used increasingly in studies to identify critical resources for animal populations and to predict species occurrence. 2. Most frequently, individual animals are monitored and pooled to estimate population-level effects without regard to group or individual-level variation. Pooling assumes that both observations and their errors are independent, and resource selection is constant given individual variation in resource availability. 3. Although researchers have identified ways to minimize autocorrelation, variation between individuals caused by differences in selection or available resources, including functional responses in resource selection, have not been well addressed. 4. Here we review random-effects models and their application to resource selection modelling to overcome these common limitations. We present a simple case study of an analysis of resource selection by grizzly bears in the foothills of the Canadian Rocky Mountains with and without random effects. 5. Both categorical and continuous variables in the grizzly bear model differed in interpretation, both in statistical significance and coefficient sign, depending on how a random effect was included. We used a simulation approach to clarify the application of random effects under three common situations for telemetry studies: (a) discrepancies in sample sizes among individuals; (b) differences among individuals in selection where availability is constant; and (c) differences in availability with and without a functional response in resource selection. 6. We found that random intercepts accounted for unbalanced sample designs, and models with random intercepts and coefficients improved model fit given the variation in selection among individuals and functional responses in selection. Our empirical example and simulations demonstrate how including random effects in resource selection models can aid interpretation and address difficult assumptions limiting their generality. This approach will allow researchers to appropriately estimate marginal (population) and conditional (individual) responses, and account for complex grouping, unbalanced sample designs and autocorrelation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Animal Ecology
                J Anim Ecol
                Wiley
                0021-8790
                1365-2656
                January 11 2016
                May 2016
                March 2016
                May 2016
                : 85
                : 3
                : 785-797
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Wildlife Biology Program Department of Ecosystem and Conservation Science College of Forestry and Conservation University of Montana 32 Campus Drive Missoula MT 59812 USA
                [2 ]Department of Biological Sciences University of Alberta Edmonton AB Canada T6G 2E9
                [3 ]Resource Conservation Parks Canada Banff National Park Banff Alberta Canada
                Article
                10.1111/1365-2656.12495
                26790111
                917de2f6-2a82-463f-bccc-28a7e2f6578e
                © 2016

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions#vor

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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