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      Promising Swellable Floating Bupropion Tablets: Formulation, in vitro/in vivo Evaluation and Comparative Pharmacokinetic Study in Human Volunteers

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          Bupropion is an antidepressant drug that facilitates weight loss. It is a highly water-soluble drug that needs multiple dosing, so it is considered a potential candidate for oral controlled-release dosage form. The aim of this research was to formulate and evaluate satiety-inducing swellable floating bupropion tablets by direct compression targeting depression associated with eating disorders. Various combinations of natural and semi-synthetic hydrogels were selected to achieve maximum swelling and remaining buoyant in the stomach. This synergistically enhances weight loss by increasing satiety.


          An I-optimal mixture design was conducted to establish the optimal quantitative composition of tablets. Friability, floating lag time, swelling index after 4 and 8 hours, along with the percent of bupropion released at 1 and 8 hours were selected as dependent variables. The optimized formulation was characterized by physicochemical properties, thermal stability, and chemical interaction. In vivo radiographic evaluation of gastric residence besides, the oral bioavailability relative to marketed Wellbutrin ® sustained-release tablets were investigated using human volunteers.


          The optimized formulation (73.3 mg xanthan, 120 mg glucomannan, 8.4 mg tamarind kernel powder, 78.3 mg HPMC K15M) was achieved with the overall desirability equals 0.782. In vivo radiographic study showed that formulation was retained for >8 hours in the stomach. Compared with the marketed BUP tablets, the C max was almost the same with a significant increase (p =0.004) for T max.


          Using combinations of these hydrogels would be promising gastroretentive delivery systems in the control of bupropion rate release with enhanced floating and swelling features.

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          Most cited references 39

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          PKSolver: An add-in program for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data analysis in Microsoft Excel.

          This study presents PKSolver, a freely available menu-driven add-in program for Microsoft Excel written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), for solving basic problems in pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data analysis. The program provides a range of modules for PK and PD analysis including noncompartmental analysis (NCA), compartmental analysis (CA), and pharmacodynamic modeling. Two special built-in modules, multiple absorption sites (MAS) and enterohepatic circulation (EHC), were developed for fitting the double-peak concentration-time profile based on the classical one-compartment model. In addition, twenty frequently used pharmacokinetic functions were encoded as a macro and can be directly accessed in an Excel spreadsheet. To evaluate the program, a detailed comparison of modeling PK data using PKSolver and professional PK/PD software package WinNonlin and Scientist was performed. The results showed that the parameters estimated with PKSolver were satisfactory. In conclusion, the PKSolver simplified the PK and PD data analysis process and its output could be generated in Microsoft Word in the form of an integrated report. The program provides pharmacokinetic researchers with a fast and easy-to-use tool for routine and basic PK and PD data analysis with a more user-friendly interface. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            DDSolver: an add-in program for modeling and comparison of drug dissolution profiles.

            In recent years, several mathematical models have been developed for analysis of drug dissolution data, and many different mathematical approaches have been proposed to assess the similarity between two drug dissolution profiles. However, until now, no computer program has been reported for simplifying the calculations involved in the modeling and comparison of dissolution profiles. The purposes of this article are: (1) to describe the development of a software program, called DDSolver, for facilitating the assessment of similarity between drug dissolution data; (2) to establish a model library for fitting dissolution data using a nonlinear optimization method; and (3) to provide a brief review of available approaches for comparing drug dissolution profiles. DDSolver is a freely available program which is capable of performing most existing techniques for comparing drug release data, including exploratory data analysis, univariate ANOVA, ratio test procedures, the difference factor f (1), the similarity factor f (2), the Rescigno indices, the 90% confidence interval (CI) of difference method, the multivariate statistical distance method, the model-dependent method, the bootstrap f (2) method, and Chow and Ki's time series method. Sample runs of the program demonstrated that the results were satisfactory, and DDSolver could be served as a useful tool for dissolution data analysis.
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              Overview on gastroretentive drug delivery systems for improving drug bioavailability


                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                14 July 2020
                : 14
                : 2741-2757
                [1 ]Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University , Cairo, Egypt
                [2 ]Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ahram Canadian University , Giza, Egypt
                [3 ]Department of Pharmaceutics and Medicinal Chemistry, Thomas J. Long School of Pharmacy & Health Sciences, University of the Pacific , Stockton, California, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Mahmoud Teaima Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University , Kasr El-Aini Street, Cairo11562, Egypt Email mahmoud.teaima@pharma.cu.edu.eg
                © 2020 Teaima et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 3, References: 44, Pages: 17
                Original Research


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