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      Vision rehabilitation interventions following mild traumatic brain injury: a scoping review

      1 , 1 , 2

      Disability and Rehabilitation

      Informa UK Limited

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          Abstract

          Purpose: To broadly examine the literature to identify vision interventions following mild traumatic brain injury. Objectives are to identify: (1) evidence-informed interventions for individuals with visual dysfunction after mild traumatic brain injury; (2) professions providing these interventions; (3) gaps in the literature and areas for further research. Methods: A scoping review was conducted of four electronic databases of peer-reviewed literature from the databases earliest records to June 2017. Articles were included if the study population was mild traumatic brain injury/concussion and a vision rehabilitation intervention was tested. Two independent reviewers screened articles for inclusion, extracted data, and identified themes. Results: The initial search identified 3111 records. Following exclusions, 22 articles were included in the final review. Nine studies evaluated optical devices, such as corrective spectacles, contact lenses, prisms, or binasal occlusion. Two studies assessed vision therapy. Ten studies examined vision therapy using optical devices. One study investigated hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Optometrists performed these interventions in most of the studies. Future research should address quality appraisal of this literature, interventions that include older adult and pediatric populations, and interdisciplinary interventions. Conclusions: There are promising interventions for vision deficits following mild traumatic brain injury. However, there are multiple gaps in the literature that should be addressed by future research. Implications for Rehabilitation Mild traumatic brain injury may result in visual deficits that can contribute to poor concentration, headaches, fatigue, problems reading, difficulties engaging in meaningful daily activities, and overall reduced quality of life. Promising interventions for vision rehabilitation following mild traumatic brain injury include the use of optical devices (e.g., prism glasses), vision or oculomotor therapy (e.g., targeted exercises to train eye movements), and a combination of optical devices and vision therapy. Rehabilitation Professionals (e.g., optometrists, occupational therapists, physiotherapists) have an important role in screening for vision impairments, recommending referrals appropriately to vision specialists, and/or assessing and treating functional vision deficits in individuals with mild traumatic brain injury.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Returning to learning following a concussion.

          Following a concussion, it is common for children and adolescents to experience difficulties in the school setting. Cognitive difficulties, such as learning new tasks or remembering previously learned material, may pose challenges in the classroom. The school environment may also increase symptoms with exposure to bright lights and screens or noisy cafeterias and hallways. Unfortunately, because most children and adolescents look physically normal after a concussion, school officials often fail to recognize the need for academic or environmental adjustments. Appropriate guidance and recommendations from the pediatrician may ease the transition back to the school environment and facilitate the recovery of the child or adolescent. This report serves to provide a better understanding of possible factors that may contribute to difficulties in a school environment after a concussion and serves as a framework for the medical home, the educational home, and the family home to guide the student to a successful and safe return to learning.
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            Occurrence of oculomotor dysfunctions in acquired brain injury: a retrospective analysis.

            The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the frequency of occurrence of oculomotor dysfunctions in a sample of ambulatory outpatients who have acquired brain injury (ABI), either traumatic brain injury (TBI) or cerebrovascular accident (CVA), with associated vision symptoms. Medical records of 220 individuals with either TBI (n = 160) or CVA (n = 60) were reviewed retrospectively. This was determined by a computer-based query spanning the years 2000 through 2003, for the frequency of occurrence of oculomotor dysfunctions including accommodation, version, vergence, strabismus, and cranial nerve (CN) palsy. The majority of individuals with either TBI (90%) or CVA (86.7%) manifested an oculomotor dysfunction. Accommodative and vergence deficits were most common in the TBI subgroup, whereas strabismus and CN palsy were most common in the CVA subgroup. The frequency of occurrence of versional deficits was similar in each diagnostic subgroup. These new findings should alert the clinician to the higher frequency of occurrence of oculomotor dysfunctions in these populations and the associated therapeutic, rehabilitative, and quality-of-life implications.
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              Trends in Sports- and Recreation-Related Traumatic Brain Injuries Treated in US Emergency Departments: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) 2001-2012.

              Sports- and recreation-related traumatic brain injuries (SRR-TBIs) are a growing public health problem affecting persons of all ages in the United States.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Disability and Rehabilitation
                Disability and Rehabilitation
                Informa UK Limited
                0963-8288
                1464-5165
                April 10 2018
                April 10 2018
                : 1-17
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Occupational Science & Occupational Therapy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada;
                [2 ] Clinical Study Investigator Bloorview Research Institute, Toronto, Canada
                Article
                10.1080/09638288.2018.1460407
                29631511
                © 2018

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