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      The secretory proprotein convertases furin, PC5, and PC7 activate VEGF-C to induce tumorigenesis

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          Most cited references 23

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          Furin: a mammalian subtilisin/Kex2p-like endoprotease involved in processing of a wide variety of precursor proteins.

          Limited endoproteolysis of inactive precursor proteins at sites marked by paired or multiple basic amino acids is a widespread process by which biologically active peptides and proteins are produced within the secretory pathway in eukaryotic cells. The identification of a novel family of endoproteases homologous with bacterial subtilisins and yeast Kex2p has accelerated progress in understanding the complex mechanisms underlying the production of the bioactive materials. Seven distinct proprotein convertases of this family (furin, PC2, PC1/PC3, PC4, PACE4, PC5/PC6, LPC/PC7/PC8/SPC7) have been identified in mammalian species, some having isoforms generated via alternative splicing. The family has been shown to be responsible for conversion of precursors of peptide hormones, neuropeptides, and many other proteins into their biologically active forms. Furin, the first proprotein convertase to be identified, has been most extensively studied. It has been shown to be expressed in all tissues and cell lines examined and to be mainly localized in the trans-Golgi network, although some proportion of the furin molecules cycle between this compartment and the cell surface. This endoprotease is capable of cleaving precursors of a wide variety of proteins, including growth factors, serum proteins, including proteases of the blood-clotting and complement systems, matrix metalloproteinases, receptors, viral-envelope glycoproteins and bacterial exotoxins, typically at sites marked by the consensus Arg-Xaa-(Lys/Arg)-Arg sequence. The present review covers the structure and function of mammalian subtilisin/Kex2p-like proprotein convertases, focusing on furin (EC 3.4.21.85).
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            Vascular endothelial growth factor receptors in the regulation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis.

            VEGFR-1 (Flt-1), VEGFR-2 (KDR) and VEGFR-3 (Flt4) are endothelial specific receptor tyrosine kinases, regulated by members of the vascular endothelial growth factor family. VEGFRs are indispensable for embryonic vascular development, and are involved in the regulation of many aspects of physiological and pathological angiogenesis. VEGF-C and VEGF-D, as ligands for VEGFR-3 are also capable of stimulating lymphangiogenesis and at least VEGF-C can enhance lymphatic metastasis. Recent studies have shown that missense mutations within the VEGFR-3 tyrosine kinase domain are associated with human hereditary lymphedema, suggesting an important role for this receptor in the development of the lymphatic vasculature.
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              VEGF and VEGF-C: specific induction of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in the differentiated avian chorioallantoic membrane.

              The lymphangiogenic potency of endothelial growth factors has not been studied to date. This is partially due to the lack of in vivo lymphangiogenesis assays. We have studied the lymphatics of differentiated avian chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) using microinjection of Mercox resin, semi- and ultrathin sectioning, immunohistochemical detection of fibronectin and alpha-smooth muscle actin, and in situ hybridization with VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 probes. CAM is drained by lymphatic vessels which are arranged in a regular pattern. Arterioles and arteries are accompanied by a pair of interconnected lymphatics and form a plexus around bigger arteries. Veins are also associated with lymphatics, particularly larger veins, which are surrounded by a lymphatic plexus. The lymphatics are characterized by an extremely thin endothelial lining, pores, and the absence of a basal lamina. Patches of the extracellular matrix can be stained with an antibody against fibronectin. Lymphatic endothelial cells of differentiated CAM show ultrastructural features of this cell type. CAM lymphatics do not possess mediae. In contrast, the lymphatic trunks of the umbilical stalk are invested by a single but discontinuous layer of smooth muscle cells. CAM lymphatics express VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3. Both the regular pattern and the typical structure of these lymphatics suggest that CAM is a suitable site to study the in vivo effects of potential lymphangiogenic factors. We have studied the effects of VEGF homo- and heterodimers, VEGF/PlGF heterodimers, and PlGF and VEGF-C homodimers on Day 13 CAM. All the growth factors containing at least one VEGF chain are angiogenic but do not induce lymphangiogenesis. PlGF-1 and PlGF-2 are neither angiogenic nor lymphangiogenic. VEGF-C is the first lymphangiogenic factor and seems to be highly chemoattractive for lymphatic endothelial cells. It induces proliferation of lymphatic endothelial cells and development of new lymphatic sinuses which are directed immediately beneath the chorionic epithelium. Our studies show that VEGF and VEGF-C are specific angiogenic and lymphangiogenic growth factors, respectively.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Clinical Investigation
                J. Clin. Invest.
                American Society for Clinical Investigation
                0021-9738
                June 1 2003
                June 1 2003
                : 111
                : 11
                : 1723-1732
                Article
                10.1172/JCI200317220
                94d3800b-5491-4a31-afa2-a7f586c5fb51
                © 2003
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://www.jci.org/articles/view/17220

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