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      Oxidative stress: molecular perception and transduction of signals triggering antioxidant gene defenses

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          Abstract

          Molecular oxygen (O2) is the premier biological electron acceptor that serves vital roles in fundamental cellular functions. However, with the beneficial properties of O2 comes the inadvertent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide (O2<FONT FACE=Symbol>·-</FONT>), hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical (OH<FONT FACE=Symbol>·</FONT>). If unabated, ROS pose a serious threat to or cause the death of aerobic cells. To minimize the damaging effects of ROS, aerobic organisms evolved non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant defenses. The latter include catalases, peroxidases, superoxide dismutases, and glutathione S-transferases (GST). Cellular ROS-sensing mechanisms are not well understood, but a number of transcription factors that regulate the expression of antioxidant genes are well characterized in prokaryotes and in yeast. In higher eukaryotes, oxidative stress responses are more complex and modulated by several regulators. In mammalian systems, two classes of transcription factors, nuclear factor kB and activator protein-1, are involved in the oxidative stress response. Antioxidant-specific gene induction, involved in xenobiotic metabolism, is mediated by the "antioxidant responsive element" (ARE) commonly found in the promoter region of such genes. ARE is present in mammalian GST, metallothioneine-I and MnSod genes, but has not been found in plant Gst genes. However, ARE is present in the promoter region of the three maize catalase (Cat) genes. In plants, ROS have been implicated in the damaging effects of various environmental stress conditions. Many plant defense genes are activated in response to these conditions, including the three maize Cat and some of the superoxide dismutase (Sod) genes.

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          Most cited references 52

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          Oxidative stress shortens telomeres.

          Telomeres in most human cells shorten with each round of DNA replication, because they lack the enzyme telomerase. This is not, however, the only determinant of the rate of loss of telomeric DNA. Oxidative damage is repaired less well in telomeric DNA than elsewhere in the chromosome, and oxidative stress accelerates telomere loss, whereas antioxidants decelerate it. I suggest here that oxidative stress is an important modulator of telomere loss and that telomere-driven replicative senescence is primarily a stress response. This might have evolved to block the growth of cells that have been exposed to a high risk of mutation.
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            Superoxide radical and superoxide dismutases.

             I Fridovich (1995)
            O2- oxidizes the [4Fe-4S] clusters of dehydratases, such as aconitase, causing-inactivation and release of Fe(II), which may then reduce H2O2 to OH- +OH.. SODs inhibit such HO. production by scavengingO2-, but Cu, ZnSODs, by virtue of a nonspecific peroxidase activity, may peroxidize spin trapping agents and thus give the appearance of catalyzing OH. production from H2O2. There is a glycosylated, tetrameric Cu, ZnSOD in the extracellular space that binds to acidic glycosamino-glycans. It minimizes the reaction of O2- with NO. E. coli, and other gram negative microorganisms, contain a periplasmic Cu, ZnSOD that may serve to protect against extracellular O2-. Mn(III) complexes of multidentate macrocyclic nitrogenous ligands catalyze the dismutation of O2- and are being explored as potential pharmaceutical agents. SOD-null mutants have been prepared to reveal the biological effects of O2-. SodA, sodB E. coli exhibit dioxygen-dependent auxotrophies and enhanced mutagenesis, reflecting O2(-)-sensitive biosynthetic pathways and DNA damage. Yeast, lacking either Cu, ZnSOD or MnSOD, are oxygen intolerant, and the double mutant was hypermutable and defective in sporulation and exhibited requirements for methionine and lysine. A Cu, ZnSOD-null Drosophila exhibited a shortened lifespan.
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              The significance of responses of the genome to challenge.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Journal
                bjmbr
                Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
                Braz J Med Biol Res
                Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica (Ribeirão Preto )
                1414-431X
                July 2005
                : 38
                : 7
                : 995-1014
                Affiliations
                [1 ] North Carolina State University United States
                Article
                S0100-879X2005000700003
                10.1590/S0100-879X2005000700003
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                BIOLOGY
                MEDICINE, RESEARCH & EXPERIMENTAL

                Medicine, General life sciences

                Catalase, Aging, Telomeres, Gene regulation, Superoxide dismutase, Genomics

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