17 patients with recurrent calcium-containing-renal calculi were studied using the short NH<sub>4</sub>CI test and one subject with ‘incomplete renal tubular acidosis’ was identified. In retrospect the only clue to this diagnosis was a fasting, morning urine pH exceeding 6.0 units. Fasting morning urine pH, which is usually less than 6.0 in subjects who acidify normally, is proposed as a simple screening test for ‘incomplete RTA’. Modified high dose NH<sub>4</sub>CI tests and Na<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> tests were performed in this subject and other patients with either complete or incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis. These studies suggest that the ability to lower urine pH is impaired less with the incomplete than with the complete form of the disease.