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      Ancient Ethiopian genome reveals extensive Eurasian admixture throughout the African continent.

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          Abstract

          Characterizing genetic diversity in Africa is a crucial step for most analyses reconstructing the evolutionary history of anatomically modern humans. However, historic migrations from Eurasia into Africa have affected many contemporary populations, confounding inferences. Here, we present a 12.5× coverage ancient genome of an Ethiopian male ("Mota") who lived approximately 4500 years ago. We use this genome to demonstrate that the Eurasian backflow into Africa came from a population closely related to Early Neolithic farmers, who had colonized Europe 4000 years earlier. The extent of this backflow was much greater than previously reported, reaching all the way to Central, West, and Southern Africa, affecting even populations such as Yoruba and Mbuti, previously thought to be relatively unadmixed, who harbor 6 to 7% Eurasian ancestry.

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          Most cited references41

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          The complete genome sequence of a Neandertal from the Altai Mountains

          We present a high-quality genome sequence of a Neandertal woman from Siberia. We show that her parents were related at the level of half siblings and that mating among close relatives was common among her recent ancestors. We also sequenced the genome of a Neandertal from the Caucasus to low coverage. An analysis of the relationships and population history of available archaic genomes and 25 present-day human genomes shows that several gene flow events occurred among Neandertals, Denisovans and early modern humans, possibly including gene flow into Denisovans from an unknown archaic group. Thus, interbreeding, albeit of low magnitude, occurred among many hominin groups in the Late Pleistocene. In addition, the high quality Neandertal genome allows us to establish a definitive list of substitutions that became fixed in modern humans after their separation from the ancestors of Neandertals and Denisovans.
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            A high-coverage genome sequence from an archaic Denisovan individual.

            We present a DNA library preparation method that has allowed us to reconstruct a high-coverage (30×) genome sequence of a Denisovan, an extinct relative of Neandertals. The quality of this genome allows a direct estimation of Denisovan heterozygosity indicating that genetic diversity in these archaic hominins was extremely low. It also allows tentative dating of the specimen on the basis of "missing evolution" in its genome, detailed measurements of Denisovan and Neandertal admixture into present-day human populations, and the generation of a near-complete catalog of genetic changes that swept to high frequency in modern humans since their divergence from Denisovans.
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              Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans

              We sequenced genomes from a $\sim$7,000 year old early farmer from Stuttgart in Germany, an $\sim$8,000 year old hunter-gatherer from Luxembourg, and seven $\sim$8,000 year old hunter-gatherers from southern Sweden. We analyzed these data together with other ancient genomes and 2,345 contemporary humans to show that the great majority of present-day Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: West European Hunter-Gatherers (WHG), who contributed ancestry to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners; Ancient North Eurasians (ANE), who were most closely related to Upper Paleolithic Siberians and contributed to both Europeans and Near Easterners; and Early European Farmers (EEF), who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harbored WHG-related ancestry. We model these populations' deep relationships and show that EEF had $\sim$44% ancestry from a "Basal Eurasian" lineage that split prior to the diversification of all other non-African lineages.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Science
                Science (New York, N.Y.)
                1095-9203
                0036-8075
                Nov 13 2015
                : 350
                : 6262
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK. mg632@cam.ac.uk joneser@tcd.ie ron.pinhasi@ucd.ie am315@cam.ac.uk.
                [2 ] Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. mg632@cam.ac.uk joneser@tcd.ie ron.pinhasi@ucd.ie am315@cam.ac.uk.
                [3 ] Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK. Integrative Systems Biology Laboratory, Division of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
                [4 ] Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK.
                [5 ] Department of Society, Culture, and Language, University of South Florida St. Petersburg, 140 7th Avenue South, St. Petersburg, FL 33701, USA.
                [6 ] Department of Anthropology, Ventura College, 4667 Telegraph Road, Ventura, CA 93003, USA. Humanities and Social Sciences Program, UCLA Extension, University of California Los Angeles, 10995 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
                [7 ] Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QG, UK.
                [8 ] Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, University of Siena, Via di Laterina, 8-53100 Siena, Italy.
                [9 ] Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Public Service Archaeology and Architecture Program, 109 Davenport Hall, 607 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.
                [10 ] Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, University of Oxford, Dyson Perrins Building, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY, UK. Cranfield Forensic Institute, Cranfield University, Defence Academy of the United Kingdom, Shrivenham, Oxon SN6 8LA, UK.
                [11 ] Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, University of Oxford, Dyson Perrins Building, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY, UK.
                [12 ] Theragen BiO Institute, 2nd Floor B-dong, AICT bldg, Iui-dong, Youngtong-gu, Suwon 443-270, Republic of Korea.
                [13 ] Institute for Biochemistry and Biology, Faculty for Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknechtstraße 24-25, 14476 Potsdam Golm, Germany. Department of Biology, University of York, Wentworth Way, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK.
                [14 ] Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
                [15 ] The Genomics Institute, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798, Republic of Korea.
                [16 ] School of Archaeology and Earth Institute, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland. mg632@cam.ac.uk joneser@tcd.ie ron.pinhasi@ucd.ie am315@cam.ac.uk.
                Article
                science.aad2879
                10.1126/science.aad2879
                26449472
                96621781-0585-4195-9235-c0e250fc3110
                Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
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