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      Multi-center prospective study on central line-associated bloodstream infections in 79 ICUs of China


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          China has not yet established a national surveillance network such as NHSN from America, so there is still no large-scale investigations on central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) incidence. Several retrospective studies in China reported that the incidence of CLABSI varied due to inconsistent diagnostic criteria. We performed a nationwide survey to investigate the utilization rate of central venous catheters (CVCs) and the incidence of CLABSI in ICUs of different areas of China.


          This is a prospective multi-center study. Patients admitted to ICUs with the use of CVCs between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2018 were enrolled in this study. Hospitals were given the definition of catheter-related bloodstream infection as: a laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection where CVC was in place on the date of event or the day before. The characteristics of patients, information of catheterization, implementation rates of precautions, and CLABSIs were collected. The statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 25.0 software and website of Open Source Epidemiologic Statistics for Public Health.


          A total of 38,212 patients and 466,585 catheter days were involved in surveillance. The average CLABSI incidence in a thousand catheter days was 1.50, the lowest incidence unit was in pediatric ICU (0/1000 catheter days), and the lowest incidence area was in Northeast China (0.77/1000 catheter days), while the highest incidence unit was in cardiac ICU (2.48/1000 catheter days) and the highest incidence area was in Eastern China (1.62/1000 catheter days). The average utilization rate of CVC was 42.85%, the lowest utilization rate was in pediatric ICU (5.85%) and in Central China (38.05%), while the highest utilization rate was in surgical ICU (64.92%) and in Western China (51.57%). Among the 702 CLABSI cases reported, a total of 735 strains of pathogens were cultured. Staphylococcus spp. was the most common organism isolated (27.07%), followed by Enterobacteriaceae (22.31%). The implementation rates of all precautions showed an upward trend during the study period ( P ≤ 0.001).


          The average incidence of CLABSI in ICUs in China is 1.5/1000 catheter days, similar to the rates reported in developed countries but lower than previous reports in China. CLABSI incidence showed regional differences in China. It is necessary to implement targeted surveillance of CLABSI cases by using standardized CLABSI surveillance definitions and methodologies.

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          Most cited references19

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          Epidemiology, medical outcomes and costs of catheter-related bloodstream infections in intensive care units of four European countries: literature- and registry-based estimates.

          Despite high incidence rates, little information is available on the burden of illness of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) in Europe. A review of the available data was performed to estimate the clinical outcomes and costs associated with CRBSIs during intensive care unit (ICU) stays in four European countries (France, Germany, Italy and the UK). Based on these data we have estimated the CRBSI-related mortality and the annual costs associated with CRBSIs in the aforementioned countries. Results show large variation between countries: 1.12-4.2 CRBSI per 1000 catheter days, 8400-14,400 CRBSIs episodes per year, 1000-1584 deaths per year, 15,960-201,600 ICU days caused by CRBSIs and euro35.9 to euro163.9 million associated costs. Discrepancies are mainly explained by the heterogeneous quality of epidemiological studies, as well as the variety of national clinical practices.
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            Trends in the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of causative pathogens of device-associated infection in Korean intensive care units from 2006 to 2013: results from the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS).

            For all countries, information on pathogens causing healthcare-associated infections is important in order to develop proper strategies for preventing and treating nosocomial infections.
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              Skin antisepsis with chlorhexidine-alcohol versus povidone iodine-alcohol, with and without skin scrubbing, for prevention of intravascular-catheter-related infection (CLEAN): an open-label, multicentre, randomised, controlled, two-by-two factorial trial.

              Intravascular-catheter-related infections are frequent life-threatening events in health care, but incidence can be decreased by improvements in the quality of care. Optimisation of skin antisepsis is essential to prevent short-term catheter-related infections. We hypothesised that chlorhexidine-alcohol would be more effective than povidone iodine-alcohol as a skin antiseptic to prevent intravascular-catheter-related infections.

                Author and article information

                BMC Infect Dis
                BMC Infect Dis
                BMC Infectious Diseases
                BioMed Central (London )
                4 December 2021
                4 December 2021
                : 21
                [1 ]GRID grid.452223.0, ISNI 0000 0004 1757 7615, Teaching and Research Section of Clinical Nursing, , Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, ; Changsha, China
                [2 ]GRID grid.452223.0, ISNI 0000 0004 1757 7615, Department of Infection Control, , Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, ; Changsha, China
                [3 ]GRID grid.411472.5, ISNI 0000 0004 1764 1621, Department of Infection Control, , Peking University First Hospital, ; Beijing, China
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                Funded by: Chinese Hospital Association
                Award ID: CHA-2012-XSPX-0629-1
                Award Recipient :
                Research Article
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                © The Author(s) 2021


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