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      Using imaging photoplethysmography for heart rate estimation in non-human primates

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          Abstract

          For humans and for non-human primates heart rate is a reliable indicator of an individual’s current physiological state, with applications ranging from health checks to experimental studies of cognitive and emotional state. In humans, changes in the optical properties of the skin tissue correlated with cardiac cycles (imaging photoplethysmogram, iPPG) allow non-contact estimation of heart rate by its proxy, pulse rate. Yet, there is no established simple and non-invasive technique for pulse rate measurements in awake and behaving animals. Using iPPG, we here demonstrate that pulse rate in rhesus monkeys can be accurately estimated from facial videos. We computed iPPGs from eight color facial videos of four awake head-stabilized rhesus monkeys. Pulse rate estimated from iPPGs was in good agreement with reference data from a contact pulse-oximeter: the error of pulse rate estimation was below 5% of the individual average pulse rate in 83% of the epochs; the error was below 10% for 98% of the epochs. We conclude that iPPG allows non-invasive and non-contact estimation of pulse rate in non-human primates, which is useful for physiological studies and can be used toward welfare-assessment of non-human primates in research.

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          Most cited references 47

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          Robust pulse rate from chrominance-based rPPG.

          Remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) enables contactless monitoring of the blood volume pulse using a regular camera. Recent research focused on improved motion robustness, but the proposed blind source separation techniques (BSS) in RGB color space show limited success. We present an analysis of the motion problem, from which far superior chrominance-based methods emerge. For a population of 117 stationary subjects, we show our methods to perform in 92% good agreement ( ±1.96σ) with contact PPG, with RMSE and standard deviation both a factor of 2 better than BSS-based methods. In a fitness setting using a simple spectral peak detector, the obtained pulse-rate for modest motion (bike) improves from 79% to 98% correct, and for vigorous motion (stepping) from less than 11% to more than 48% correct. We expect the greatly improved robustness to considerably widen the application scope of the technology.
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            Heart rate measurement based on a time-lapse image.

            Using a time-lapse image acquired from a CCD camera, we developed a non-contact and non-invasive device, which could measure both the respiratory and pulse rate simultaneously. The time-lapse image of a part of the subject's skin was consecutively captured, and the changes in the average image brightness of the region of interest (ROI) were measured for 30s. The brightness data were processed by a series of operations of interpolation as follows a first-order derivative, a low pass filter of 2 Hz, and a sixth-order auto-regressive (AR) spectral analysis. Fourteen sound and healthy female subjects (22-27 years of age) participated in the experiments. Each subject was told to keep a relaxed seating posture with no physical restriction. At the same time, heart rate was measured by a pulse oximeter and respiratory rate was measured by a thermistor placed at the external naris. Using AR spectral analysis, two clear peaks could be detected at approximately 0.3 and 1.2 Hz. The peaks were thought to correspond to the respiratory rate and the heart rate. Correlation coefficients of 0.90 and 0.93 were obtained for the measurement of heart rate and respiratory rate, respectively.
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              Human Analogue Safe Haven Effect of the Owner: Behavioural and Heart Rate Response to Stressful Social Stimuli in Dogs

              The secure base and safe haven effects of the attachment figure are central features of the human attachment theory. Recently, conclusive evidence for human analogue attachment behaviours in dogs has been provided, however, the owner’s security-providing role in danger has not been directly supported. We investigated the relationship between the behavioural and cardiac response in dogs (N = 30) while being approached by a threatening stranger in separation vs. in the presence of the owner, presented in a balanced order. Non-invasive telemetric measures of heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) data during the threatening approaches was compared to periods before and after the encounters. Dogs that showed distress vocalisation during separation (N = 18) and that growled or barked at the stranger during the threatening approach (N = 17) were defined as behaviourally reactive in the given situation. While characteristic stress vocalisations were emitted during separations, the absence of the owner did not have an effect on dogs’ mean HR, but significantly increased the HRV. The threatening approach increased dogs’ mean HR, with a parallel decrease in the HRV, particularly in dogs that were behaviourally reactive to the encounter. Importantly, the HR increase was significantly less pronounced when dogs faced the stranger in the presence of the owner. Moreover, the test order, whether the dog encountered the stranger first with or without its owner, also proved important: HR increase associated with the encounter in separation seemed to be attenuated in dogs that faced the stranger first in the presence of their owner. We provided evidence for human analogue safe haven effect of the owner in a potentially dangerous situation. Similarly to parents of infants, owners can provide a buffer against stress in dogs, which can even reduce the effect of a subsequent encounter with the same threatening stimuli later when the owner is not present.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: SoftwareRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: ValidationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Funding acquisitionRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Funding acquisitionRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Funding acquisitionRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Funding acquisitionRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                2018
                31 August 2018
                : 13
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Georg-Elias-Müller-Institute of Psychology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany
                [2 ] Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Goettingen, Germany
                [3 ] Leibniz ScienceCampus Primate Cognition, Goettingen, Germany
                [4 ] German Primate Center - Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, Goettingen, Germany
                [5 ] Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience, Goettingen, Germany
                University of Toyama, JAPAN
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-18-02671
                10.1371/journal.pone.0202581
                6118383
                30169537
                © 2018 Unakafov et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 9, Tables: 8, Pages: 22
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Ministry for Science and Education of Low er Saxony and the Volkswagen Foundation
                Funded by: DFG research unit 2591 "Severity assessment in animal based research"
                We acknowledge funding from Hermann and Lilly Schilling Foundation (Germany), https://www.deutsches-stiftungszentrum.de/stiftungen/hermann-und-lilly-schilling-stiftung-f%C3%BCr-medizinische-forschung (received by IK). We acknowledge funding from the Ministry for Science and Education of Lower Saxony and the Volkswagen Foundation through the program “Niedersächsisches Vorab,” https://www.volkswagenstiftung.de/unsere-foerderung/unser-foerderangebot-im-ueberblick/vorab.html. We acknowledge funding from the DFG research unit 2591 “Severity assessment in animal based research,” http://gepris.dfg.de/gepris/projekt/321137804 (received by AG, ST). We acknowledge additional support by the Leibniz Association through funding for the Leibniz ScienceCampus Primate Cognition and the Max Planck Society, https://www.leibniz-gemeinschaft.de/en/home/. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Physical Sciences
                Physics
                Electromagnetic Radiation
                Light
                Visible Light
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Cardiology
                Heart Rate
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Head
                Face
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Anatomy
                Head
                Face
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Spectrum Analysis Techniques
                Infrared Spectroscopy
                near-Infrared Spectroscopy
                Physical Sciences
                Physics
                Electromagnetic Radiation
                Light
                Light Pulses
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Experimental Organism Systems
                Animal Models
                Rhesus Monkeys
                Biology and life sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Vertebrates
                Amniotes
                Mammals
                Primates
                Monkeys
                Old World monkeys
                Macaque
                Rhesus Monkeys
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Vertebrates
                Amniotes
                Mammals
                Primates
                Monkeys
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Bioassays and Physiological Analysis
                Electrophysiological Techniques
                Cardiac Electrophysiology
                Electrocardiography
                Custom metadata
                All data files are available from the figshare public repository (DOI: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.5818101).

                Uncategorized

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