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      Reciprocal Association of Plasma Adiponectin and Serum C-Reactive Protein Concentration in Haemodialysis Patients with End-Stage Kidney Disease – A Follow-Up Study

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          Abstract

          Aim: Malnutrition and inflammation are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in end-stage renal disease. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between concentrations of plasma adiponectin, serum C-reactive protein (CRP), carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and duration of haemodialysis (HD) treatment in prevalent HD patients. Methods: Plasma adiponectin and serum CRP concentrations were estimated in 80 HD patients and 22 healthy controls. Carotid IMT was measured by ultrasound technique. HD patients were followed up for 23 ± 16 months. During this period, 24 of them died. Results: In HD patients, plasma adiponectin concentration was over 3 times higher than in controls (29.0 ± 2.1 vs. 8.7 ± 2.6 µg/ml; p < 0.001). HD patients with serum CRP concentrations ≧5 mg/l were characterized by a lower plasma adiponectin concentration than HD patients with the CRP <5 mg/l (23.9 ± 3.5 vs. 33.0 ± 3.1 µg/ml; p = 0.03). Plasma adiponectin and serum CRP concentrations were inversely related in HD (τ = –0.181; p = 0.02). No relationship between adiponectinaemia and IMT was observed. Survival (Kaplan-Meier analysis) within the lowest plasma adiponectin tertile tended (p = 0.06) to be the worse. Conclusions: (1) Inflammatory processes are associated with an inadequate low plasma adiponetin concentration in HD patients, and (2) a lower plasma adiponectin concentration seems to be a new predictor of poor outcome in HD patients.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Strong association between malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis in chronic renal failure.

          Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and malnutrition are widely recognized as leading causes of the increased morbidity and mortality observed in uremic patients. C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute-phase protein, is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in nonrenal patient populations. In chronic renal failure (CRF), the prevalence of an acute-phase response has been associated with an increased mortality. One hundred and nine predialysis patients (age 52 +/- 1 years) with terminal CRF (glomerular filtration rate 7 +/- 1 ml/min) were studied. By using noninvasive B-mode ultrasonography, the cross-sectional carotid intima-media area was calculated, and the presence or absence of carotid plaques was determined. Nutritional status was assessed by subjective global assessment (SGA), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), serum albumin, serum creatinine, serum urea, and 24-hour urine urea excretion. The presence of an inflammatory reaction was assessed by CRP, fibrinogen (N = 46), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha; N = 87). Lipid parameters, including Lp(a) and apo(a)-isoforms, as well as markers of oxidative stress (autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein and vitamin E), were also determined. Compared with healthy controls, CRF patients had an increased mean carotid intima-media area (18.3 +/- 0.6 vs. 13.2 +/- 0.7 mm2, P or = 10 mg/liter). Malnourished patients had higher CRP levels (23 +/- 3 vs. 13 +/- 2 mg/liter, P < 0.01), elevated calculated intima-media area (20.2 +/- 0.8 vs. 16.9 +/- 0.7 mm2, P < 0.01) and a higher prevalence of carotid plaques (90 vs. 60%, P < 0.0001) compared with well-nourished patients. During stepwise multivariate analysis adjusting for age and gender, vitamin E (P < 0.05) and CRP (P < 0.05) remained associated with an increased intima-media area. The presence of carotid plaques was significantly associated with age (P < 0.001), log oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL; P < 0.01), and small apo(a) isoform size (P < 0.05) in a multivariate logistic regression model. These results indicate that the rapidly developing atherosclerosis in advanced CRF appears to be caused by a synergism of different mechanisms, such as malnutrition, inflammation, oxidative stress, and genetic components. Apart from classic risk factors, low vitamin E levels and elevated CRP levels are associated with an increased intima-media area, whereas small molecular weight apo(a) isoforms and increased levels of oxLDL are associated with the presence of carotid plaques.
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            Disruption of adiponectin causes insulin resistance and neointimal formation.

            The adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin has been proposed to play important roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, and it has been reported to exhibit putative antiatherogenic properties in vitro. In this study we generated adiponectin-deficient mice to directly investigate whether adiponectin has a physiological protective role against diabetes and atherosclerosis in vivo. Heterozygous adiponectin-deficient (adipo(+/-)) mice showed mild insulin resistance, while homozygous adiponectin-deficient (adipo(-/-)) mice showed moderate insulin resistance with glucose intolerance despite body weight gain similar to that of wild-type mice. Moreover, adipo(-/-) mice showed 2-fold more neointimal formation in response to external vascular cuff injury than wild-type mice (p = 0.01). This study provides the first direct evidence that adiponectin plays a protective role against insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in vivo.
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              Transvenous lead extraction: Heart Rhythm Society expert consensus on facilities, training, indications, and patient management: this document was endorsed by the American Heart Association (AHA).

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2005
                September 2005
                11 May 2005
                : 101
                : 1
                : c18-c24
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Nephrology, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland, and bDepartment of Internal Medicine and Molecular Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
                Article
                85707 Nephron Clin Pract 2005;101:c18–c24
                10.1159/000085707
                15886491
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 5, References: 32, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/85707
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