Objectives: To investigate the characteristics of kidney stone disease (KSD) among the Chinese population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and identify sex-specific factors associated with KSD. Methods: A single-center, cross-sectional analysis was performed among Chinese patients with T2DM. KSD was identified by ultrasonography or computed tomography results. Demographic data, physical measurements, laboratory measurements, comorbidities, and related medication data were collected and analyzed. Binary logistic regression was used to explore the associated factors. Results: A total of 7,257 patients with T2DM were included in the study, of which 56.1% were male and 15.0% were diagnosed with KSD. The male-to-female ratio for KSD among T2DM patients was 1.35. Among all the T2DM patients, male gender, HOMA2-IR, uric acid, and renal cysts were independent risk factors for KSD development, whereas serum phosphorus and the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) were independent protective factors for KSD. Among male diabetic patients, triglycerides, HOMA2-IR, renal cysts, and urinary tract infections were all associated with a greater risk of KSD. In contrast, serum phosphorus was associated with a lower risk of KSD. Among female diabetic patients, systolic blood pressure and HOMA2-B were both contributing factors, and ACEIs acted as a protective factor for KSD. Conclusion: Among Chinese patients with T2DM, approximately 1 in 7 patients was affected by KSD, and the prevalence was twice as high as that in the general Chinese population. The factors associated with KSD varied by sex among T2DM patients. Focusing on these factors is beneficial for reducing the risk of KSD and delaying kidney damage in diabetic patients.