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      Sex Differences in Kidney Stone Disease in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus


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          Objectives: To investigate the characteristics of kidney stone disease (KSD) among the Chinese population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and identify sex-specific factors associated with KSD. Methods: A single-center, cross-sectional analysis was performed among Chinese patients with T2DM. KSD was identified by ultrasonography or computed tomography results. Demographic data, physical measurements, laboratory measurements, comorbidities, and related medication data were collected and analyzed. Binary logistic regression was used to explore the associated factors. Results: A total of 7,257 patients with T2DM were included in the study, of which 56.1% were male and 15.0% were diagnosed with KSD. The male-to-female ratio for KSD among T2DM patients was 1.35. Among all the T2DM patients, male gender, HOMA2-IR, uric acid, and renal cysts were independent risk factors for KSD development, whereas serum phosphorus and the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) were independent protective factors for KSD. Among male diabetic patients, triglycerides, HOMA2-IR, renal cysts, and urinary tract infections were all associated with a greater risk of KSD. In contrast, serum phosphorus was associated with a lower risk of KSD. Among female diabetic patients, systolic blood pressure and HOMA2-B were both contributing factors, and ACEIs acted as a protective factor for KSD. Conclusion: Among Chinese patients with T2DM, approximately 1 in 7 patients was affected by KSD, and the prevalence was twice as high as that in the general Chinese population. The factors associated with KSD varied by sex among T2DM patients. Focusing on these factors is beneficial for reducing the risk of KSD and delaying kidney damage in diabetic patients.

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          Prevalence of kidney stones in China: an ultrasonography based cross-sectional study.

          To investigate the prevalence and associated factors of kidney stones among adults in China.
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            Diabetes mellitus and the risk of nephrolithiasis.

            Insulin resistance is a central feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and may increase the risk of kidney stone formation. Existing cross-sectional data on the association between DM and nephrolithiasis are limited, and no prospective study to date has evaluated the relation between DM and the risk of kidney stones. To evaluate the relation between DM and prevalent kidney stones, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 3 large cohorts including over 200,000 participants: the Nurses' Health Study I (older women), the Nurses' Health Study II (younger women), and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (men). We then prospectively studied the association between DM and incident nephrolithiasis over a combined 44 years of follow-up. Because insulin resistance can precede the diagnosis of DM by decades, we also prospectively examined the relation between kidney stones and the diagnosis of incident DM. Multivariate regression models adjusted for age, body mass index, thiazide diuretic use, fluid intake, and dietary factors. At baseline, the multivariate relative risk of prevalent stone disease in individuals with DM compared to individuals without was 1.38 (95% CI 1.06-1.79) in older women, 1.67 (95% CI 1.28-2.20) in younger women, and 1.31 (95% CI 1.11-1.54) in men. Prospectively, the multivariate relative risk of incident kidney stone formation in participants with DM compared to participants without was 1.29 (95% CI 1.05-1.58) in older women, 1.60 (95% CI 1.16-2.21) in younger women, and 0.81 (95% CI 0.59-1.09) in men. The multivariate relative risk of incident DM in participants with a history of kidney stones compared to participants without was 1.33 (95% CI 1.18-1.50) in older women, 1.48 (95% CI 1.14-1.91) in younger women, and 1.49 (95% CI 1.29-1.72) in men. DM is a risk factor for the development of kidney stones. Additional studies are needed to determine if the increased risk of DM in stone formers is due to subclinical insulin resistance.
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              Changing gender prevalence of stone disease.

              Recent studies suggest that the incidence of renal stone formation has been increasing and the male predominance of nephrolithiasis is decreasing, which may be due to changes in diet and lifestyle. We examined changes in the prevalence by gender of inpatient hospital discharges for urinary stone disease. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used for analysis. Discharges with an International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification principal diagnosis of 592.0 (calculus of kidney) or 592.1 (calculus of ureter) from 1997 to 2002 were included in the investigation. An estimated mean+/-SE 1,013,621+/-19,310 discharges for stone disease occurred from 1997 to 2002. Discharges for renal calculus increased by 18.9% during the study period (p<0.001), while discharges for ureteral calculus remained relatively constant. After adjusting for population changes discharges for renal calculi increased by 14.2% (p=0.002). In females discharges for renal calculi increased by 21.0% and discharges for ureteral calculi increased by 19.2% (each p<0.001). After adjusting for population changes renal calculus and ureteral calculus discharges in females increased by 22.0% (p=0.001) and 14.5% (p=0.005), respectively. In this nationally representative sample the population adjusted rate of discharges for stone disease in females dramatically increased from 1997 to 2002. This alteration represents a change in the prevalence by gender of treated stone disease from a 1.7:1 to 1.3:1 male-to-female ratio. It may reflect variations in the underlying prevalence by gender of stone disease. We speculate that the increasing incidence of nephrolithiasis might be due to lifestyle associated risk factors, such as obesity.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Diseases
                S. Karger AG
                May 2020
                28 February 2020
                : 6
                : 3
                : 195-203
                [_a] aDepartment of Nephrology, the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China
                [_b] bDepartment of Urology, the Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China
                Author notes
                *Lin Sun, Department of Nephrology, the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Kidney Disease and Blood Purification, No. 139 Renmin Middle Road, Changsha, Hunan 410011 (China), sunlin@csu.edu.cn
                506053 Kidney Dis 2020;6:195–203
                © 2020 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 04 December 2019
                : 20 January 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Pages: 9
                Research Article

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Type 2 diabetes mellitus,Sex differences,Protective factors,Kidney stone,Risk factors


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