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      Species conservation profiles of a random sample of world spiders II: Gnaphosidae to Nemesiidae

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          Abstract

          Abstract
          Background

          The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the most widely used information source on the extinction risk of species. One of the uses of the Red List is to evaluate and monitor the state of biodiversity and a possible approach for this purpose is the Red List Index (RLI). For many taxa, mainly hyperdiverse groups, it is not possible within available resources to assess all known species. In such cases, a random sample of species might be selected for assessment and the results derived from it extrapolated for the entire group - the Sampled Red List Index (SRLI). The current contribution is the second in four papers that will constitute the baseline of a future spider SRLI encompassing 200 species distributed across the world.

          New information

          A sample of 200 species of spiders were randomly selected from the World Spider Catalogue, an updated global database containing all recognised species names for the group. The 200 selected species where divided taxonomically at the family level and the familes were ordered alphabetically. In this publication, we present the conservation profiles of 45 species belonging to the families alphabetically arranged between Gnaphosidae and Nemesiidae , which encompassed Gnaphosidae , Idiopidae , Linyphiidae , Liocranidae , Lycosidae , Micropholcommatidae , Mysmenidae and Nemesiidae .

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          Most cited references 149

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          The melting Himalayas: cascading effects of climate change on water, biodiversity, and livelihoods.

          The Greater Himalayas hold the largest mass of ice outside polar regions and are the source of the 10 largest rivers in Asia. Rapid reduction in the volume of Himalayan glaciers due to climate change is occurring. The cascading effects of rising temperatures and loss of ice and snow in the region are affecting, for example, water availability (amounts, seasonality), biodiversity (endemic species, predator-prey relations), ecosystem boundary shifts (tree-line movements, high-elevation ecosystem changes), and global feedbacks (monsoonal shifts, loss of soil carbon). Climate change will also have environmental and social impacts that will likely increase uncertainty in water supplies and agricultural production for human populations across Asia. A common understanding of climate change needs to be developed through regional and local-scale research so that mitigation and adaptation strategies can be identified and implemented. The challenges brought about by climate change in the Greater Himalayas can only be addressed through increased regional collaboration in scientific research and policy making. ©2009 Society for Conservation Biology.
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            A global 1-km consensus land-cover product for biodiversity and ecosystem modelling

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              Green Plants in the Red: A Baseline Global Assessment for the IUCN Sampled Red List Index for Plants

              Plants provide fundamental support systems for life on Earth and are the basis for all terrestrial ecosystems; a decline in plant diversity will be detrimental to all other groups of organisms including humans. Decline in plant diversity has been hard to quantify, due to the huge numbers of known and yet to be discovered species and the lack of an adequate baseline assessment of extinction risk against which to track changes. The biodiversity of many remote parts of the world remains poorly known, and the rate of new assessments of extinction risk for individual plant species approximates the rate at which new plant species are described. Thus the question ‘How threatened are plants?’ is still very difficult to answer accurately. While completing assessments for each species of plant remains a distant prospect, by assessing a randomly selected sample of species the Sampled Red List Index for Plants gives, for the first time, an accurate view of how threatened plants are across the world. It represents the first key phase of ongoing efforts to monitor the status of the world’s plants. More than 20% of plant species assessed are threatened with extinction, and the habitat with the most threatened species is overwhelmingly tropical rain forest, where the greatest threat to plants is anthropogenic habitat conversion, for arable and livestock agriculture, and harvesting of natural resources. Gymnosperms (e.g. conifers and cycads) are the most threatened group, while a third of plant species included in this study have yet to receive an assessment or are so poorly known that we cannot yet ascertain whether they are threatened or not. This study provides a baseline assessment from which trends in the status of plant biodiversity can be measured and periodically reassessed.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Biodivers Data J
                Biodivers Data J
                Biodiversity Data Journal
                Biodiversity Data Journal
                Biodiversity Data Journal
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2828
                2018
                29 June 2018
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
                [2 ] IUCN SSC Spider & Scorpion Specialist Group, Helsinki, Finland
                [3 ] University College London, London, United Kingdom
                [4 ] University of Wisconsin-Green Bay, Green Bay, United States of America
                [5 ] University of Venda, Thohoyandou, South Africa
                [6 ] University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom
                [7 ] Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia
                [8 ] Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, United States of America
                [9 ] University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
                [10 ] University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
                [11 ] University of Indianapolis, Indianapolis, United States of America
                [12 ] Canterbury Museum, Christchurch, New Zealand
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Pedro Cardoso ( pedro.cardoso@ 123456helsinki.fi ).

                Academic editor: Pavel Stoev

                Article
                Biodiversity Data Journal 8042
                10.3897/BDJ.6.e26203
                6065607
                Sini Seppälä, Sérgio Henriques, Michael L Draney, Stefan Foord, Alastair T Gibbons, Luz A Gomez, Sarah Kariko, Jagoba Malumbres-Olarte, Marc Milne, Cor J Vink, Pedro Cardoso

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, References: 185
                Categories
                Species Conservation Profiles
                Araneae
                Biodiversity & Conservation
                Neogene
                World

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