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      Ancient genomes reveal social and genetic structure of Late Neolithic Switzerland

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          Abstract

          Genetic studies of Neolithic and Bronze Age skeletons from Europe have provided evidence for strong population genetic changes at the beginning and the end of the Neolithic period. To further understand the implications of these in Southern Central Europe, we analyze 96 ancient genomes from Switzerland, Southern Germany, and the Alsace region in France, covering the Middle/Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age. Similar to previously described genetic changes in other parts of Europe from the early 3rd millennium BCE, we detect an arrival of ancestry related to Late Neolithic pastoralists from the Pontic-Caspian steppe in Switzerland as early as 2860–2460 calBCE. Our analyses suggest that this genetic turnover was a complex process lasting almost 1000 years and involved highly genetically structured populations in this region.

          Abstract

          European populations underwent strong genetic changes during the Neolithic. Here, Furtwängler et al. provide ancient nuclear and mitochondrial genomic data from the region of Switzerland during the end of the Neolithic and the Early Bronze Age that reveal a complex genetic turnover during the arrival of steppe ancestry.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans

           Iosif Lazaridis,  Krause Johannes (corresponding) ,  Nick Patterson (2014)
          We sequenced genomes from a $\sim$7,000 year old early farmer from Stuttgart in Germany, an $\sim$8,000 year old hunter-gatherer from Luxembourg, and seven $\sim$8,000 year old hunter-gatherers from southern Sweden. We analyzed these data together with other ancient genomes and 2,345 contemporary humans to show that the great majority of present-day Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: West European Hunter-Gatherers (WHG), who contributed ancestry to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners; Ancient North Eurasians (ANE), who were most closely related to Upper Paleolithic Siberians and contributed to both Europeans and Near Easterners; and Early European Farmers (EEF), who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harbored WHG-related ancestry. We model these populations' deep relationships and show that EEF had $\sim$44% ancestry from a "Basal Eurasian" lineage that split prior to the diversification of all other non-African lineages.
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            An Aboriginal Australian genome reveals separate human dispersals into Asia.

            We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to 38,000 years ago. We also find evidence of gene flow between populations of the two dispersal waves prior to the divergence of Native Americans from modern Asian ancestors. Our findings support the hypothesis that present-day Aboriginal Australians descend from the earliest humans to occupy Australia, likely representing one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa.
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              Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                krause@shh.mpg.de
                Journal
                Nat Commun
                Nat Commun
                Nature Communications
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2041-1723
                20 April 2020
                20 April 2020
                2020
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2190 1447, GRID grid.10392.39, Institute for Archaeological Sciences, Archaeo- and Palaeogenetics, , University of Tübingen, ; Tübingen, Germany
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4914 1197, GRID grid.469873.7, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, ; Jena, Germany
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7304, GRID grid.1010.0, ARC Centre of Excellence for Mathematical and Statistical Frontiers, School of Mathematical Sciences, , The University of Adelaide, ; Adelaide, SA 5005 Australia
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0726 5157, GRID grid.5734.5, Department of Physical Anthropology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, , University of Bern, ; Bern, Switzerland
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0726 5157, GRID grid.5734.5, Institute of Archaeological Sciences, Prehistoric Archaeology, , University of Bern, ; Bern, Switzerland
                [6 ]Archaeological Office of the District of Constance, Konstanz, Germany
                [7 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2298 9313, GRID grid.5613.1, Department of history of arts and Archaeology, , University of Burgundy, ; Burgundy, France
                [8 ]Museum of Archaeology Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France
                [9 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2190 1447, GRID grid.10392.39, Institute for Archaeological Science, Palaeoanthropology, , Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, ; Tübingen, Germany
                [10 ]State Office for Cultural Heritage Management Baden-Wuerttemberg, Konstanz, Germany
                [11 ]Archaeological Service of the canton of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
                [12 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2190 1447, GRID grid.10392.39, Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment, , University of Tübingen, ; Tübingen, Germany
                [13 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0650, GRID grid.7400.3, Institute of Evolutionary Medicine, , University of Zurich, ; Zurich, Switzerland
                [14 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 973X, GRID grid.5252.0, Institut für Vor- und Frühgeschichtliche Archäologie und Provinzialrömische Archäologie, , Ludwig Maximilian University, ; Munich, Germany
                [15 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0726 5157, GRID grid.5734.5, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, , University of Bern, ; Bern, Switzerland
                Article
                15560
                10.1038/s41467-020-15560-x
                7171184
                32313080
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100004189, Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (Max Planck Society);
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100001659, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation);
                Award ID: KR 4015/4-1
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100008661, Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften (Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities);
                Award ID: Times of Upheaval
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
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                © The Author(s) 2020

                Uncategorized

                population genetics, evolutionary genetics, history

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