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      Golden Gate Shuffling: A One-Pot DNA Shuffling Method Based on Type IIs Restriction Enzymes


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          We have developed a protocol to assemble in one step and one tube at least nine separate DNA fragments together into an acceptor vector, with 90% of recombinant clones obtained containing the desired construct. This protocol is based on the use of type IIs restriction enzymes and is performed by simply subjecting a mix of 10 undigested input plasmids (nine insert plasmids and the acceptor vector) to a restriction-ligation and transforming the resulting mix in competent cells. The efficiency of this protocol allows generating libraries of recombinant genes by combining in one reaction several fragment sets prepared from different parental templates. As an example, we have applied this strategy for shuffling of trypsinogen from three parental templates (bovine cationic trypsinogen, bovine anionic trypsinogen and human cationic trypsinogen) each divided in 9 separate modules. We show that one round of shuffling using the 27 trypsinogen entry plasmids can easily produce the 19,683 different possible combinations in one single restriction-ligation and that expression screening of a subset of the library allows identification of variants that can lead to higher expression levels of trypsin activity. This protocol, that we call ‘Golden Gate shuffling’, is robust, simple and efficient, can be performed with templates that have no homology, and can be combined with other shuffling protocols in order to introduce any variation in any part of a given gene.

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          Most cited references30

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          Harnessing homologous recombination in vitro to generate recombinant DNA via SLIC.

          We describe a new cloning method, sequence and ligation-independent cloning (SLIC), which allows the assembly of multiple DNA fragments in a single reaction using in vitro homologous recombination and single-strand annealing. SLIC mimics in vivo homologous recombination by relying on exonuclease-generated ssDNA overhangs in insert and vector fragments, and the assembly of these fragments by recombination in vitro. SLIC inserts can also be prepared by incomplete PCR (iPCR) or mixed PCR. SLIC allows efficient and reproducible assembly of recombinant DNA with as many as 5 and 10 fragments simultaneously. SLIC circumvents the sequence requirements of traditional methods and functions much more efficiently at very low DNA concentrations when combined with RecA to catalyze homologous recombination. This flexibility allows much greater versatility in the generation of recombinant DNA for the purposes of synthetic biology.
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            DNA shuffling of a family of genes from diverse species accelerates directed evolution.

            DNA shuffling is a powerful process for directed evolution, which generates diversity by recombination, combining useful mutations from individual genes. Libraries of chimaeric genes can be generated by random fragmentation of a pool of related genes, followed by reassembly of the fragments in a self-priming polymerase reaction. Template switching causes crossovers in areas of sequence homology. Our previous studies used single genes and random point mutations as the source of diversity. An alternative source of diversity is naturally occurring homologous genes, which provide 'functional diversity'. To evaluate whether natural diversity could accelerate the evolution process, we compared the efficiency of obtaining moxalactamase activity from four cephalosporinase genes evolved separately with that from a mixed pool of the four genes. A single cycle of shuffling yielded eightfold improvements from the four separately evolved genes, versus a 270- to 540-fold improvement from the four genes shuffled together, a 50-fold increase per cycle of shuffling. The best clone contained eight segments from three of the four genes as well as 33 amino-acid point mutations. Molecular breeding by shuffling can efficiently mix sequences from different species, unlike traditional breeding techniques. The power of family shuffling may arise from sparse sampling of a larger portion of sequence space.
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              In planta engineering of viral RNA replicons: efficient assembly by recombination of DNA modules delivered by Agrobacterium.

              We have developed an efficient, versatile, and user-friendly viral engineering and expression system that is based on in planta assembly of functional viral vectors from separate pro-vector modules. With this new system, instead of supplying a plant cell with a complete viral vector as a mature viral particle, an RNA or a linear DNA molecule, we use agrobacteria to deliver various modules that are assembled inside the cell with the help of a site-specific recombinase. The resulting DNA is transcribed, and undesired elements such as recombination sites are spliced out, generating a fully functional RNA replicon. The proposed protocol allows us, by simply treating a plant with a mixture of two or more agrobacteria carrying specific prefabricated modules, to rapidly and inexpensively assemble and test multiple vector/gene combinations, without the need to perform the various engineering steps normally required with alternative protocols. The process described here is very fast (expression requires 3-4 days); it provides very high protein yield (up to 80% of total soluble protein); more than before, it is carried out using in vivo manipulations; it is based on prefabricated genetic modules that can be developed/upgraded independently; and it is inherently scalable.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS ONE
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                14 May 2009
                : 4
                : 5
                : e5553
                [1]Icon Genetics GmbH, Biozentrum Halle, Halle, Germany
                Virginia Tech, United States of America
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: CE SM. Performed the experiments: CE RG RK. Analyzed the data: RG RK SM. Wrote the paper: SM. Established the trypsinogen assay: RK.

                Engler et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                : 3 February 2009
                : 19 April 2009
                Page count
                Pages: 9
                Research Article
                Molecular Biology
                Genetics and Genomics/Gene Expression



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