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      Addiction Motivation Reformulated: An Affective Processing Model of Negative Reinforcement.

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          Abstract

          This article offers a reformulation of the negative reinforcement model of drug addiction and proposes that the escape and avoidance of negative affect is the prepotent motive for addictive drug use. The authors posit that negative affect is the motivational core of the withdrawal syndrome and argue that, through repeated cycles of drug use and withdrawal, addicted organisms learn to detect interoceptive cues of negative affect preconsciously. Thus, the motivational basis of much drug use is opaque and tends not to reflect cognitive control. When either stressors or abstinence causes negative affect to grow and enter consciousness, increasing negative affect biases information processing in ways that promote renewed drug administration. After explicating their model, the authors address previous critiques of negative reinforcement models in light of their reformulation and review predictions generated by their model.

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          Most cited references7

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          The automated will: Nonconscious activation and pursuit of behavioral goals.

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            The unbearable automaticity of being.

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              N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent plasticity within a distributed corticostriatal network mediates appetitive instrumental learning.

              The effect of microinfusion of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5) into the amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, and dorsal and ventral subiculum on acquisition of a lever-pressing task for food in rats was examined. Serial transmission between the basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens core was also examined in an asymmetric infusion design. AP-5 administered bilaterally into either the amygdala or medial prefrontal cortex markedly impaired learning, whereas administration into the dorsal or ventral subiculum had no effect. Unilateral infusion of AP-5 into either the nucleus accumbens core or amygdala was also sufficient to impair learning. These data provide novel evidence for NMDA receptor-dependent plasticity within corticostriatal networks in the acquisition of appetitive instrumental learning.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Psychological Review
                Psychological Review
                American Psychological Association (APA)
                1939-1471
                0033-295X
                2004
                2004
                : 111
                : 1
                : 33-51
                Article
                10.1037/0033-295X.111.1.33
                14756584
                9b5b5d74-e081-4916-a9a3-6c9caf1e5ab1
                © 2004
                History

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