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      Torymidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) revised: molecular phylogeny, circumscription and reclassification of the family with discussion of its biogeography and evolution of life-history traits

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          A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera)

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            An Extreme Case of Plant–Insect Codiversification: Figs and Fig-Pollinating Wasps

            It is thought that speciation in phytophagous insects is often due to colonization of novel host plants, because radiations of plant and insect lineages are typically asynchronous. Recent phylogenetic comparisons have supported this model of diversification for both insect herbivores and specialized pollinators. An exceptional case where contemporaneous plant–insect diversification might be expected is the obligate mutualism between fig trees (Ficus species, Moraceae) and their pollinating wasps (Agaonidae, Hymenoptera). The ubiquity and ecological significance of this mutualism in tropical and subtropical ecosystems has long intrigued biologists, but the systematic challenge posed by >750 interacting species pairs has hindered progress toward understanding its evolutionary history. In particular, taxon sampling and analytical tools have been insufficient for large-scale cophylogenetic analyses. Here, we sampled nearly 200 interacting pairs of fig and wasp species from across the globe. Two supermatrices were assembled: on an average, wasps had sequences from 77% of 6 genes (5.6 kb), figs had sequences from 60% of 5 genes (5.5 kb), and overall 850 new DNA sequences were generated for this study. We also developed a new analytical tool, Jane 2, for event-based phylogenetic reconciliation analysis of very large data sets. Separate Bayesian phylogenetic analyses for figs and fig wasps under relaxed molecular clock assumptions indicate Cretaceous diversification of crown groups and contemporaneous divergence for nearly half of all fig and pollinator lineages. Event-based cophylogenetic analyses further support the codiversification hypothesis. Biogeographic analyses indicate that the present-day distribution of fig and pollinator lineages is consistent with a Eurasian origin and subsequent dispersal, rather than with Gondwanan vicariance. Overall, our findings indicate that the fig-pollinator mutualism represents an extreme case among plant–insect interactions of coordinated dispersal and long-term codiversification. [Biogeography; coevolution; cospeciation; host switching; long-branch attraction; phylogeny.]
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              The root of the mammalian tree inferred from whole mitochondrial genomes.

              Morphological and molecular data are currently contradictory over the position of monotremes with respect to marsupial and placental mammals. As part of a re-evaluation of both forms of data we examine complete mitochondrial genomes in more detail. There is a particularly large discrepancy in the frequencies of thymine and cytosine (T-C) between mitochondrial genomes that appears to affect some deep divergences in the mammalian tree. We report that recoding nucleotides to RY-characters, and partitioning maximum-likelihood analyses among subsets of data reduces such biases, and improves the fit of models to the data, respectively. RY-coding also increases the signal on the internal branches relative to external, and thus increases the phylogenetic signal. In contrast to previous analyses of mitochondrial data, our analyses favor Theria (marsupials plus placentals) over Marsupionta (monotremes plus marsupials). However, a short therian stem lineage is inferred, which is at variance with the traditionally deep placement of monotremes on morphological data.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cladistics
                Cladistics
                Wiley
                07483007
                December 2018
                December 2018
                November 01 2017
                : 34
                : 6
                : 627-651
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Faculty of Science; Department of Zoology; Charles University; Viničná 7 128 44 Prague 2 Czech Republic
                [2 ]CBGP, INRA, CIRAD, IRD; Montpellier SupAgro; Université de Montpellier; Montpellier France
                [3 ]CBGP, CIRAD; Montpellier SupAgro; INRA, IRD; Université de Montpellier; Montpellier France
                [4 ]Department of Entomology; University of California; Riverside CA 92521 USA
                Article
                10.1111/cla.12228
                © 2017

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