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      BCc1, the novel antineoplastic nanocomplex, showed potent anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          In spite of all the efforts and researches on anticancer therapeutics, an absolute treatment is still a myth. Therefore, it is necessary to utilize novel technologies in order to synthesize smart multifunctional structures. In this study, for the first time, we have evaluated the anticancer effects of BCc1 nanocomplex by vitro and in vivo studies, which is designed based on the novel nanochelating technology.

          Methods

          Human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7) and mouse embryonic fibroblasts were used for the in vitro study. Antioxidant potential, cell toxicity, apoptosis induction, and CD44 and CD24 protein expression were evaluated after treatment of cells with different concentrations of BCc1 nanocomplex. For the in vivo study, mammary tumor-bearing female Balb/c mice were treated with different doses of BCc1 and their effects on tumor growth rate and survival were evaluated.

          Results

          BCc1 decreased CD44 protein expression and increased CD24 protein expression. It induced MCF-7 cell apoptosis but at the same concentrations did not have negative effects on mouse embryonic fibroblasts viability and protected them against oxidative stress. Treatment with nanocomplex increased survival and reduced the tumor size growth in breast cancer-bearing balb/c mice.

          Conclusion

          These results demonstrate that BCc1 has the capacity to be assessed as a new anticancer agent in complementary studies.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Oxidative stress and cancer: an overview.

          Reactive species, which mainly include reactive oxygen species (ROS), are products generated as a consequence of metabolic reactions in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. In normal cells, low-level concentrations of these compounds are required for signal transduction before their elimination. However, cancer cells, which exhibit an accelerated metabolism, demand high ROS concentrations to maintain their high proliferation rate. Different ways of developing ROS resistance include the execution of alternative pathways, which can avoid large amounts of ROS accumulation without compromising the energy demand required by cancer cells. Examples of these processes include the guidance of the glycolytic pathway into the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and/or the generation of lactate instead of employing aerobic respiration in the mitochondria. Importantly, ROS levels can be used as a thermostat to monitor the damage that cells can bear. The implications for ROS regulation are highly significant for cancer therapy because commonly used radio- and chemotherapeutic drugs influence tumor outcome through ROS modulation. Moreover, the discovery of novel biomarkers that are able to predict the clinical response to pro-oxidant therapies is a crucial challenge to overcome to allow for the personalization of cancer therapies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            CD44 is of functional importance for colorectal cancer stem cells.

            Both CD44 and CD133 were reported as putative markers for isolating colorectal cancer stem cells (CSC). It remains to be resolved if both of these markers are of functional importance for colorectal CSC. The expression of CD44 and CD133 in normal colonic tissues and primary colorectal cancer was assessed by immunohistochemistry in a series of 60 patients on tissue microarray sections. Both in vitro clonogenic and in vivo tumorigenic assay were applied to measure CSC activities from the cells isolated from patients. Lentiviral RNA interference was used to stably knock down CD44 or CD133 in colorectal cancer cells from patients. We found that CD44(+) cells displayed clustered growth and they did not colocalize with CD133(+) cells within colorectal cancer. As few as 100 CD44(+) cells from a patients' tumor initiated a xenograft tumor in vivo. A single CD44(+) cell from a tumor could form a sphere in vitro which has characteristic stem cell properties and was able to generate a xenograft tumor resembling the properties of the primary tumor. Knockdown of CD44, but not CD133, strongly prevented clonal formation and inhibited tumorigenicity in xenograft model. These results indicate that CD44 is a robust marker and is of functional importance for colorectal CSC for cancer initiation.
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              In vitro toxicity of silica nanoparticles in human lung cancer cells.

              The cytotoxicity of 15-nm and 46-nm silica nanoparticles was investigated by using crystalline silica (Min-U-Sil 5) as a positive control in cultured human bronchoalveolar carcinoma-derived cells. Exposure to 15-nm or 46-nm SiO(2) nanoparticles for 48 h at dosage levels between 10 and 100 microg/ml decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Both SiO(2) nanoparticles were more cytotoxic than Min-U-Sil 5; however, the cytotoxicities of 15-nm and 46-nm silica nanoparticles were not significantly different. The 15-nm SiO(2) nanoparticles were used to determine time-dependent cytotoxicity and oxidative stress responses. Cell viability decreased significantly as a function of both nanoparticle dosage (10-100 microg/ml) and exposure time (24 h, 48 h, and 72 h). Indicators of oxidative stress and cytotoxicity, including total reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione, malondialdehyde, and lactate dehydrogenase, were quantitatively assessed. Exposure to SiO(2) nanoparticles increased ROS levels and reduced glutathione levels. The increased production of malondialdehyde and lactate dehydrogenase release from the cells indicated lipid peroxidation and membrane damage. In summary, exposure to SiO(2) nanoparticles results in a dose-dependent cytotoxicity in cultural human bronchoalveolar carcinoma-derived cells that is closely correlated to increased oxidative stress.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2016
                30 December 2015
                : 10
                : 59-70
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Research and Development, Sodour Ahrar Shargh Company, Tehran, Iran
                [2 ]Cancer Research Centre, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [3 ]Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran, Iran
                [4 ]Department of Pathology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [5 ]Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
                [6 ]Department of Haematology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
                [7 ]Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari, Cancer Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Tel +98 21 2272 4090, Fax +98 21 2274 9213, Email crcsbmu@ 123456gmail.com
                Mohammad Hassan Nazaran, Department of Research and Development, Sodour Ahrar Shargh Co., Tehran, Iran, Tel +98 21 8899 2123, Fax +98 21 8895 3212, Email mnazaran@ 123456nanochelatingtechnology.com
                Article
                dddt-10-059
                10.2147/DDDT.S89694
                4699513
                © 2016 Kalanaky et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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