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      Air pollution and cause-specific mortality: A comparative study of urban and rural areas in China

      , , , ,

      Chemosphere

      Elsevier BV

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          The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale.

          Assessment of the global burden of disease is based on epidemiological cohort studies that connect premature mortality to a wide range of causes, including the long-term health impacts of ozone and fine particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5). It has proved difficult to quantify premature mortality related to air pollution, notably in regions where air quality is not monitored, and also because the toxicity of particles from various sources may vary. Here we use a global atmospheric chemistry model to investigate the link between premature mortality and seven emission source categories in urban and rural environments. In accord with the global burden of disease for 2010 (ref. 5), we calculate that outdoor air pollution, mostly by PM2.5, leads to 3.3 (95 per cent confidence interval 1.61-4.81) million premature deaths per year worldwide, predominantly in Asia. We primarily assume that all particles are equally toxic, but also include a sensitivity study that accounts for differential toxicity. We find that emissions from residential energy use such as heating and cooking, prevalent in India and China, have the largest impact on premature mortality globally, being even more dominant if carbonaceous particles are assumed to be most toxic. Whereas in much of the USA and in a few other countries emissions from traffic and power generation are important, in eastern USA, Europe, Russia and East Asia agricultural emissions make the largest relative contribution to PM2.5, with the estimate of overall health impact depending on assumptions regarding particle toxicity. Model projections based on a business-as-usual emission scenario indicate that the contribution of outdoor air pollution to premature mortality could double by 2050.
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            Association between long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution and mortality in China: a cohort study.

            No prior cohort studies exist in China examining the association of outdoor air pollution with mortality. We studied 70,947 middle-aged men and women in the China National Hypertension Survey and its follow-up study. Baseline data were obtained in 1991 using a standard protocol. The follow-up evaluation was conducted in 1999 and 2000. Annual average air pollution exposure between 1991 and 2000, including total suspended particle (TSP), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), were estimated by linking fixed-site monitoring data with resident zip code. We examined the association of air pollution with mortality using proportional hazards regression model. We found significant associations between air pollution levels and mortality from cardiopulmonary diseases and from lung cancer. Each 10 μg/m(3) elevation of TSP, SO(2) and NO(x) was associated with a 0.9% (95%CI: 0.3%, 1.5%), 3.2% (95%CI: 2.3%, 4.0%), and 2.3% (95%CI: 0.6%, 4.1%) increased risk of cardiovascular mortality, respectively. We found significant effects of SO(2) on mortality after adjustment for TSP. Conclusively, ambient air pollution was associated with increased cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality in China. These data contribute to the scientific literature on long-term effects of air pollution for high exposure settings typical in developing countries. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Nitrogen dioxide and mortality: review and meta-analysis of long-term studies.

              Exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has been linked to increased mortality in several epidemiological studies but the question remains of whether NO2 is directly responsible for the health effects or is only an indicator of other pollutants, including particulate matter. The aim of the present review was to provide pooled estimates of the long-term effects of NO2 on mortality, which are potentially useful for health impact assessment. We selected 23 papers, published from 2004 to 2013, evaluating the relationship between NO2 and mortality, also including an assessment of the effect of particulate matter exposure. A random-effects meta-analysis was carried out on 19 studies. The pooled effect on mortality was 1.04 (95% CI 1.02-1.06) with an increase of 10 μg · m(-3) in the annual NO2 concentration and 1.05 (95% CI 1.01-1.09) for particulate matter <2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) (10 μg · m(-3)). The effect on cardiovascular mortality was 1.13 (95% CI 1.09-1.18) for NO2 and 1.20 (95% CI 1.09-1.31) for PM2.5. The NO2 effect on respiratory mortality was 1.03 (95% CI 1.02-1.03) and 1.05 (95% CI 1.01-1.09) for PM2.5. Four bipollutant analyses with particulate matter and NO2 in the same models showed minimal changes in the effect estimates of NO2. There is evidence of a long-term effect of NO2 on mortality as great as that of PM2.5. An independent effect of NO2 emerged from multipollutant models.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Chemosphere
                Chemosphere
                Elsevier BV
                00456535
                January 2021
                January 2021
                : 262
                : 127884
                Article
                10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127884
                9c417dd8-a68c-46b6-9bcf-966f71af70a5
                © 2021

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