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      Feeding and breeding aspects of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) under laboratory conditions Translated title: Élevage et alimentation en laboratoire de Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera : Muscidae)

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          Bionomic aspects of Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) were studied under laboratory conditions. For this reason, laboratory-rearing techniques were optimized at the National Veterinary School of Toulouse. The colony was maintained at 25 ± 2 °C, 50 ± 10% RH under a 12-hour light cycle and observed daily. The size of each adult cage is 30 x 30 x 30 cm and designed to house about 500-1,000 flies. The average cycle from egg to adult was 19.2 ± 1.7 days. The mean longevity of imagos was 9.3 ± 5.8 days and not significantly different between sexes. Stable flies were split into two groups; the first was fed with blood, honey and water, and the second was fed only with honey and water. The mean weight of a blood meal was 11.1 ± 3.8 mg with no significant differences between males and females. The mean longevity of non-blood fed flies was found to be significantly higher (10.4 ± 3.9 days) than those fed with blood. The maximum lifespan was shorter for non-blood fed males (17 days) and females (18 days) than for those fed with blood (females: 24 days, males: 23 days). Under these laboratory conditions, S. calcitrans rearing was successfully established. In the end, the number of expected generations of S. calcitrans and the net reproduction rate were estimated to be 11.8 generations/year and 16.2 living females per female respectively.

          Translated abstract

          Les aspects bionomiques de Stomoxys calcitrans (Linné, 1758) (Diptera : Muscidae) ont été étudiés en laboratoire à l’École Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse. Une colonie de S. calcitrans a été élevée dans des cages de 30 x 30 x 30 cm contenant entre 500 et 1 000 adultes par cage, à une température de 25 ± 2 °C, une humidité relative de 50 ± 10 % et avec une alternance de 12 heures d’éclairage et 12 heures d’obscurité. Dans ces conditions, la durée du cycle évolutif de l’oeuf à l’adulte a été de 19,2 ± 1,7 jours en moyenne. La longévité moyenne des imagos a été de 9,3 ± 5,8 jours et n’était pas significativement différente entre les deux sexes. Les mouches adultes ont été divisées en deux groupes après l’émergence : le premier a été alimenté avec du sang, du miel et de l’eau, pendant que le second a été nourri exclusivement avec du miel et de l’eau. Le poids moyen du repas de sang a été de 11,1 ± 3,8 mg sans différence significative entre mâles et femelles. La longévité moyenne a été significativement plus élevée (10,4 ± 3,9 jours) dans le second groupe. Toutefois, l’espérance de vie maximale était plus courte pour les mâles (17 jours) et les femelles (18 jours) sans repas sanguin en comparaison du premier groupe (mâles : 23 jours, femelles : 24 jours). Le nombre attendu de générations annuelles de S. calcitrans a été estimé à 11,8 générations et le taux de reproduction à 16,2 femelles vivantes par femelle.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Economic impact of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on dairy and beef cattle production.

          Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), are among the most damaging arthropod pests of cattle worldwide. The last estimate of their economic impact on United States cattle production was published 20 yr ago and placed losses at $608 million. Subsequently, several studies of effects of stable flies on beef cattle weight gain and feed efficiency have been published, and stable flies have become increasingly recognized as pests of cattle on pasture and range. We analyzed published studies and developed yield-loss functions to relate stable fly infestation levels to cattle productivity, and then estimated the economic impact of stable flies on cattle production in the United States. Four industry sectors were considered: dairy, cow-calf, pastured stockers, and feeder cattle. In studies reporting stable fly infestation levels of individual herds, median annual per animal production losses were estimated to be 139 kg of milk for dairy cows, and 6, 26, and 9 kg body weight for preweanling calves, pastured stockers, and feeder cattle, respectively. The 200,000 stable flies emerging from an average sized winter hay feeding site reduce annual milk production of 50 dairy cows by an estimated 890 kg and weight gain of 50 preweanling calves, stockers, or feeder cattle by 58, 680, or 84 kg. In 2009 dollars, the value of these losses would be $254, $132, $1,279, or $154, respectively. Using cattle inventories and average prices for 2005-2009, and median monthly infestation levels, national losses are estimated to be $360 million for dairy cattle, $358 million for cow-calf herds, $1,268 million for pastured cattle, and $226 million for cattle on feed, for a total impact to U.S. cattle industries of $2,211 million per year. Excluded from these estimates are effects of stable flies on feed conversion efficiency, animal breeding success, and effects of infested cattle on pasture and water quality. Additional research on the effects of stable flies on high-production dairy cows and nursing beef calves is needed to increase the reliability of the estimates.
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            [The trapping of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae). Improvement of a model: the Vavoua trap].

            The control of tsetse flies with traps needs a decrease of their cost/efficiency. In the forest belt of Côte d'Ivoire, the research on Glossina palpalis palpalis behaviour allows to propose a new model of trap, the "Vavoua" trap, issued from the biconical and the pyramidal traps, with a similar efficiency but a twice lower cost (1139 F CFA without manpower, i.e. 3.55 US $, respectively 6.68 and 6.98 US $ for the biconical and the pyramidal). This trap has an upper cone (polyamide mosquito net) overcoming three screens (length 45 cm), sewed at 120 degrees, composed of a blue external part (cotton/polyester) and a black internal part (polyamide) with a blue/black ratio equal to 2. Its low cost and the possibility for the farmer to soak themselves the trap with insecticide allow to consider its use for large-scale control of tsetse flies in the forest zones by rural communities.
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              Relationships between temperature and life-history parameters of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae).

               T Lysyk (1998)
              Relationships between temperature and life history parameters were determined for the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Median immature developmental times ranged from > 60 d at 15 degrees C to 30 d at 15 degrees C to 700 eggs per female at 25 degrees C and was greatest at 25.3 degrees C. Net reproductive rate, and the intrinsic rate of increase had maxima at 25.3 and 27.8 degrees C, and mean generation time was minimum at 33.4 degrees C. Proportional variation in the time of immature development and adult longevity were independent of temperature, but proportional variation in the time of oviposition was related inversely to temperature. Extreme temperatures appeared to lengthen the preoviposition period and reduce the duration of egg production. Relationships were compared with previous studies. Equations developed and presented in this article will be used to develop a temperature-dependent stable fly population model.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                November 2012
                15 November 2012
                : 19
                : 4 ( publisher-idID: parasite/2012/04 )
                : 309-317
                [1 ] Laboratoire de Parasitologie, Université de Toulouse, INP, ENVT 31076 Toulouse France
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: Emmanuel Liénard. Tel.: 33 (0)5 61 19 39 48 – Fax: 33 (0)5 61 19 39 71. E-mail: e.lienard@ 123456envt.fr
                parasite2012194p309 10.1051/parasite/2012194309
                © PRINCEPS Editions, Paris, 2012

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 44, Pages: 9
                Original Contribution


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