TRIM5alpha has been shown to be a major postentry determinant of the host range for gammaretroviruses and lentiviruses and, more recently, spumaviruses. However, the restrictive potential of TRIM5alpha against other retroviruses has been largely unexplored. We sought to determine whether or not Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV), a prototype betaretrovirus isolated from rhesus macaques, was sensitive to restriction by TRIM5alpha. Cell lines from both Old World and New World primate species were screened for their susceptibility to infection by vesicular stomatitis virus G protein pseudotyped M-PMV. All of the cell lines tested that were established from Old World primates were found to be susceptible to M-PMV infection. However, fibroblasts established from three New World monkey species specifically resisted infection by this virus. Exogenously expressing TRIM5alpha from either tamarin or squirrel monkeys in permissive cell lines resulted in a block to M-PMV infection. Restriction in the resistant cell line of spider monkey origin was determined to occur at a postentry stage. However, spider monkey TRIM5alpha expression in permissive cells failed to restrict M-PMV infection, and interference with endogenous TRIM5alpha in the spider monkey fibroblasts failed to relieve the block to infectivity. Our results demonstrate that TRIM5alpha specificity extends to betaretroviruses and suggest that New World monkeys have evolved additional mechanisms to restrict the infection of at least one primate betaretrovirus.