Blog
About


  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: found

Cardiovascular Outcomes in Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes: Impact of Blood Pressure Level and Presence of Kidney Disease

Read Bookmark
There is no summary for this article yet

Abstract

Background: Persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD) represent a population prone to cardiovascular disease (CVD) but vulnerable to adverse medication effects. We assessed the impact of intensive antihypertensive therapy on the cerebrovascular and other CVD outcomes in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes and baseline CKD. Methods: Using current guideline criteria, 1,726 (36.9%) of 4,678 participants in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) blood pressure (BP) arm had mild to moderate CKD (CKD1-3B) at baseline. Participants of this study were randomized to intensive (systolic <120 mm Hg) or standard (systolic <140 mm Hg) BP goals. Fatal and non-fatal stroke were pre-specified secondary outcomes of the ACCORD study. Results: Total cerebrovascular events were significantly higher in participants with baseline CKD (0.66%/year) compared with participants free of CKD (0.28%/year). A significantly higher rate of events was observed in CKD participants. Intensive antihypertensive therapy in participants without CKD at baseline resulted in a 55% significant reduction of any stroke (hazard ratio 0.447; 95% CI 0.227-0.880) and a 50% reduction of non-fatal stroke (hazard ratio 0.498; 95% CI 0.250-0.993). In participants with CKD at baseline, the occurrence of any stroke was reduced by 38% (hazard ratio 0.623; 95% CI 0.361-1.074) and non-fatal stroke by 36% (hazard ratio 0.642; 95% CI 0.361-1.142). Test for interaction was NS between the 2 groups. Changes in other CVD outcomes did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: These findings suggest that intensive antihypertensive therapy offers significant cerebrovascular protection in diabetic participants without CKD at baseline, but significant benefit to patients with CKD cannot be excluded.

Related collections

Most cited references 20

  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: not found

Chronic kidney disease and the risks of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization.

End-stage renal disease substantially increases the risks of death, cardiovascular disease, and use of specialized health care, but the effects of less severe kidney dysfunction on these outcomes are less well defined. We estimated the longitudinal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) among 1,120,295 adults within a large, integrated system of health care delivery in whom serum creatinine had been measured between 1996 and 2000 and who had not undergone dialysis or kidney transplantation. We examined the multivariable association between the estimated GFR and the risks of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization. The median follow-up was 2.84 years, the mean age was 52 years, and 55 percent of the group were women. After adjustment, the risk of death increased as the GFR decreased below 60 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area: the adjusted hazard ratio for death was 1.2 with an estimated GFR of 45 to 59 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.2), 1.8 with an estimated GFR of 30 to 44 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.7 to 1.9), 3.2 with an estimated GFR of 15 to 29 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 (95 percent confidence interval, 3.1 to 3.4), and 5.9 with an estimated GFR of less than 15 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 (95 percent confidence interval, 5.4 to 6.5). The adjusted hazard ratio for cardiovascular events also increased inversely with the estimated GFR: 1.4 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.4 to 1.5), 2.0 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.9 to 2.1), 2.8 (95 percent confidence interval, 2.6 to 2.9), and 3.4 (95 percent confidence interval, 3.1 to 3.8), respectively. The adjusted risk of hospitalization with a reduced estimated GFR followed a similar pattern. An independent, graded association was observed between a reduced estimated GFR and the risk of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization in a large, community-based population. These findings highlight the clinical and public health importance of chronic renal insufficiency. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: not found

Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes.

Epidemiologic studies have shown a relationship between glycated hemoglobin levels and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether intensive therapy to target normal glycated hemoglobin levels would reduce cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes who had either established cardiovascular disease or additional cardiovascular risk factors. In this randomized study, 10,251 patients (mean age, 62.2 years) with a median glycated hemoglobin level of 8.1% were assigned to receive intensive therapy (targeting a glycated hemoglobin level below 6.0%) or standard therapy (targeting a level from 7.0 to 7.9%). Of these patients, 38% were women, and 35% had had a previous cardiovascular event. The primary outcome was a composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes. The finding of higher mortality in the intensive-therapy group led to a discontinuation of intensive therapy after a mean of 3.5 years of follow-up. At 1 year, stable median glycated hemoglobin levels of 6.4% and 7.5% were achieved in the intensive-therapy group and the standard-therapy group, respectively. During follow-up, the primary outcome occurred in 352 patients in the intensive-therapy group, as compared with 371 in the standard-therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 1.04; P=0.16). At the same time, 257 patients in the intensive-therapy group died, as compared with 203 patients in the standard-therapy group (hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.46; P=0.04). Hypoglycemia requiring assistance and weight gain of more than 10 kg were more frequent in the intensive-therapy group (P<0.001). As compared with standard therapy, the use of intensive therapy to target normal glycated hemoglobin levels for 3.5 years increased mortality and did not significantly reduce major cardiovascular events. These findings identify a previously unrecognized harm of intensive glucose lowering in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00000620.) 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society
  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: not found

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the United States.

The prevalence and incidence of kidney failure treated by dialysis and transplantation in the United States have increased from 1988 to 2004. Whether there have been changes in the prevalence of earlier stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) during this period is uncertain. To update the estimated prevalence of CKD in the United States. Cross-sectional analysis of the most recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 1988-1994 and NHANES 1999-2004), a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized adults aged 20 years or older in 1988-1994 (n = 15,488) and 1999-2004 (n = 13,233). Chronic kidney disease prevalence was determined based on persistent albuminuria and decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Persistence of microalbuminuria (>30 mg/g) was estimated from repeat visit data in NHANES 1988-1994. The GFR was estimated using the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation reexpressed to standard serum creatinine. The prevalence of both albuminuria and decreased GFR increased from 1988-1994 to 1999-2004. The prevalence of CKD stages 1 to 4 increased from 10.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.2%-10.9%) in 1988-1994 to 13.1% (95% CI, 12.0%-14.1%) in 1999-2004 with a prevalence ratio of 1.3 (95% CI, 1.2-1.4). The prevalence estimates of CKD stages in 1988-1994 and 1999-2004, respectively, were 1.7% (95% CI, 1.3%-2.2%) and 1.8% (95% CI, 1.4%-2.3%) for stage 1; 2.7% (95% CI, 2.2%-3.2%) and 3.2% (95% CI, 2.6%-3.9%) for stage 2; 5.4% (95% CI, 4.9%-6.0%) and 7.7% (95% CI, 7.0%-8.4%) for stage 3; and 0.21% (95% CI, 0.15%-0.27%) and 0.35% (0.25%-0.45%) for stage 4. A higher prevalence of diagnosed diabetes and hypertension and higher body mass index explained the entire increase in prevalence of albuminuria but only part of the increase in the prevalence of decreased GFR. Estimation of GFR from serum creatinine has limited precision and a change in mean serum creatinine accounted for some of the increased prevalence of CKD. The prevalence of CKD in the United States in 1999-2004 is higher than it was in 1988-1994. This increase is partly explained by the increasing prevalence of diabetes and hypertension and raises concerns about future increased incidence of kidney failure and other complications of CKD.

Author and article information

Affiliations
aDepartment of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and bGeorgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, D.C., cDepartment of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, George Washington University, Washington, D.C., dWake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, N.C., eWFUHS Geriatric/Gerontology, Winston-Salem, Ohio, fUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C., and gDepartment of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, VA Clinical Center Network, Memphis, Tenn., USA; hMcMaster Medical Center, Hamilton, Ont., Canada
Journal
AJN
Am J Nephrol
10.1159/issn.0250-8095
American Journal of Nephrology
Am J Nephrol
S. Karger AG (Basel, Switzerland karger@123456karger.com http://www.karger.com )
0250-8095
1421-9670
June 2016
29 April 2016
: 43
: 4
: 271-280
© 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

Counts
Figures: 3, Tables: 3, References: 24, Pages: 10
Categories
Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research
ScienceOpen disciplines:
Keywords:

Comments

Comment on this article

Register to benefit from advanced discovery features on more than 32,000,000 articles

Already registered?

Email*:
Password*: