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      Analysis of Dipylidium caninum tapeworms from dogs and cats, or their respective fleas : Part 2. Distinct canine and feline host association with two different Dipylidium caninum genotypes Translated title: Analyse des ténias Dipylidium caninum des chiens et des chats, ou de leurs puces respectives : Partie 2. Association distincte des hôtes canins et félins avec deux génotypes différents de Dipylidium caninum

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          Initial investigations suggested the existence of two distinct genotypes of Dipylidium caninum from infected cat fleas ( Ctenocephalides felis). One genotype was found almost always (> 95%) in fleas collected from, and proglottids shed by, domestic dogs. The other was found almost always (> 95%) in fleas collected from, and proglottids shed by, domestic cats. Molecular investigations (Part 1, in this journal) confirmed the presence of two distinct genotypes. Due to the apparent host association observed, these were referred to as the “ D. caninum canine genotype” and the “ D. caninum feline genotype”. The current article reports on an in vivo experimental infection study assessing the host-parasite interaction for each genotype. Mixed infections with the two genotypes in both dogs and cats were conducted. The specific genotyping of proglottids allowed us to assess the specific prepatent periods, prolificity, and longevity of each genotype in dogs versus cats. The possible hybridisation was also studied through molecular evaluation of the proglottids expelled by infected dogs and cats. Results demonstrate a clear distinct host interaction. The canine D. caninum genotype occurred at a higher frequency in dogs, with a shorter prepatent period and a longer lifespan; and the feline genotype occurred at a higher frequency in cats, with a shorter prepatent period and a longer lifespan. The absence of any hybrids in the mixed infections of both dogs and cats confirm the hypothesis of two distinct genotypes, suggesting the possibility of two distinct species within Dipylidium caninum.

          Translated abstract

          Des investigations initiales ont suggéré l’existence de deux génotypes distincts au sein de Dipylidium caninum issus de puces infectées ( Ctenocephalides felis). Un génotype est trouvé dans plus de 95 % des cas chez des puces ou des proglottis collectés sur des chiens. L’autre est trouvé dans plus de 95 % des cas sur des puces collectées sur des chats ou des proglottis éliminés par les chats. Les investigations moléculaires publiées (Partie 1, dans ce journal) ont confirmé l’existence de ces deux génotypes. Du fait de l’apparent tropisme d’hôte, ces deux génotypes sont désignés comme génotype canin et génotype félin. Le présent article présente les résultats d’infestations expérimentales ayant pour objectif d’étudier l’interaction hôte-parasite pour chaque génotype. Des infestations mixtes ont été réalisées avec les deux génotypes chez des chiens et des chats. Le génotypage spécifique a permis d’étudier les périodes prépatentes, la prolificité et la longévité de chaque génotype chez chaque hôte. La possible hybridation a aussi été étudiée par évaluation moléculaire des proglottis éliminés par les chiens et les chats infestés. Les résultats ont démontré une interaction hôte-parasite bien distincte. Le génotype canin de D. caninum a une fréquence plus élevée chez les chiens, avec une période de prépatence plus courte et une durée de vie plus longue, et le génotype félin a une fréquence plus élevée chez les chats, avec une période prépatente plus courte et une durée de vie plus longue. L’absence de tout hybride dans les infections mixtes des chiens et des chats confirme l’hypothèse de deux génotypes distincts, suggérant la possibilité de deux espèces distinctes au sein de Dipylidium caninum.

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          Most cited references 45

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          Prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs from São Paulo State, Brazil.

          The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in stray dogs, and dogs with owners was investigated by fecal examinations from 271 dogs employing sedimentation, simple flotation and centrifugation-flotation methods. The centrifugation-flotation method, when compared to simple flotation or sedimentation methods was generally more accurate in the diagnosis of all intestinal parasites, but statistical differences were detected only in relation to Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp. (synonym Isospora spp.). The following parasites, with their respective prevalence, were diagnosed in the fecal samples: Ancylostoma spp. (23.6%); Toxocara canis (5.5%); Trichuris vulpis (4.8%); Spirocerca lupi (1.9%); Dipylidium caninum (0.7%); Giardia spp. (12.2%); Hammondia heydorni (2.6%); Cystoisospora spp. (8.5%); and Sarcocystis spp. (2.2%). The prevalence of most parasites was similar for dogs of mixed-breed and for dogs of a defined-breed, except for Cystoisospora spp. and T. canis which showed a significantly higher prevalence in mixed-breed dogs. The prevalence of Ancylostoma spp. (17.1%) was significantly lower in stray dogs than in those with an owner (31.9%) and the prevalence of Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp. was higher in stray dogs (P < 0.05). No effect of season on the occurrence of the different parasite genera could be observed, except for Ancylostoma spp., for which an increase in the percentage of dogs shedding eggs was observed at the beginning of Summer with a peak occurrence during April and May (Autumn). The prevalence of Ancylostoma spp., T. canis, T. vulpis, Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp. was higher in adult males than in adult females, but significant differences between the two groups occurred only with Giardia spp. Young animals were found to more frequently shed Nematode eggs in feces than adult animals.
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            Estimation of canine intestinal parasites in Córdoba (Spain) and their risk to public health.

            The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs was studied in the province of Córdoba (southern Spain), with special attention to those parasites that can be transmitted to man. The experiment was completed with the examination of soil samples from public parks and city gardens. The study was carried out over a population of 1800 animals entered in the Control Animal Centre (CECA) by coprological methods, and within this group, 300 dogs were sacrificed and necropsied. The prevalence of any intestinal parasitic infection was 71.33%. The following parasites of the gastrointestinal tract were recorded: Isospora canis (22%), Isospora (Cystoisospora) spp. (10.22%), Sarcocystis (2.5%), Hammondia/Neospora (1.94%), Giardia canis (1%), Dipylidium caninum (13.2%), Taenia hydatigena (7.66%), Taenia pisiformis (4%), Uncinaria stenocephala (33.27%), Toxascaris leonina (14.94%), Toxocara canis (17.72%) and Trichuris vulpis (1.66%). Related to public health, it is important to point out the presence of T. canis only in puppies younger than one year and Uncinaria, more frequent in adult dogs. Soil samples of parks revealed the presence of eggs of Toxocara, and it suggests the existence of real risk for human infection.
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              Intestinal and lung parasites in owned dogs and cats from central Italy.

              Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal and lung parasites were investigated in 239 owned dogs and 81 owned cats from central Italy. In 36 dogs and 20 cats found infected by nematodes, pre and post-treatment faecal egg count (FEC) was also evaluated. About 31% of dogs and about 35% of cats resulted positive for at least one intestinal or lung parasitic species. Helminthic, intestinal and zoonotic infections resulted prevalent in examined animals. Examined dogs resulted infected by Toxocara canis (13.0%), Toxascaris leonina (1.7%), Trichuris vulpis (3.3%), Ancylostoma caninum (2.0%), Uncinaria stenocephala (1.25%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.8%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (0.4%), Dipylidium caninum (1.25%), Taeniidae eggs (0.4%), Giardia duodenalis (3.8%), and Cystoisospora (Isospora) spp. (7.5%). Examined cats were infected by Toxocara cati (22.2%), Capillaria aerophila (1.2%), Ancylostoma tubaeformae (1.2%), U. stenocephala (3.7%), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (1.2%), Mesocestoides sp. (1.2%), D. caninum (1.2%), G. duodenalis (1.2%) and Cystoisospora spp. (4.5%). The presence of clinical signs and the young age (less than 6 months) were identified as risk factors by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. In 63.9% treated dogs and in 80.0% treated cats, percentages of post-treatment FEC reduction higher than 90% were found. Results obtained in this study are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                28 May 2018
                : 25
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2018/01 )
                [1 ] Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health, 29 Av T. Garnier, 69007 Lyon France
                [2 ] Clinomics, P.O. Box 11186, Universitas, Bloemfontein, 9321 South Africa
                [3 ] Clinvet, P.O. Box 11186, Universitas, Bloemfontein, 9321 South Africa
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: frederic.beugnet@ 123456merial.com
                parasite180005 10.1051/parasite/2018029
                © F. Beugnet et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2018

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Figures: 1, Tables: 10, Equations: 0, References: 48, Pages: 11
                Research Article


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