Conflicting hypotheses about the relationships among the major lineages of aculeate Hymenoptera clearly show the necessity of detailed comparative morphological studies. Using micro-computed tomography and 3D reconstructions, the skeletal musculature of the meso- and metathorax and the first and second abdominal segment in Apoidea are described. Females of Sceliphron destillatorium, Sphex (Fernaldina) lucae (both Sphecidae), and Ampulex compressa (Ampulicidae) were examined. The morphological terminology provided by the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology is used. Up to 42 muscles were found. The three species differ in certain numerical and structural aspects. Ampulicidae differs significantly from Sphecidae in the metathorax and the anterior abdomen. The metapleural apodeme and paracoxal ridge are weakly developed in Ampulicidae, which affect some muscular structures. Furthermore, the muscles that insert on the coxae and trochanters are broader and longer in Ampulicidae. A conspicuous characteristic of Sphecidae is the absence of the metaphragma. Overall, we identified four hitherto unrecognized muscles. Our work suggests additional investigations on structures discussed in this paper.