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      Association between Consumption of Coffee and the Prevalence of Periodontitis: The 2008–2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

      1 , 2 , 3 , *

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          Abstract

          Background

          This study was performed to assess the relationship between the consumption of coffee and periodontitis using nationally representative data.

          Methods

          The data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used; the analysis in this study was confined to a total of 16,730 respondents over 19 years old who had no missing values for the consumption of coffee or outcome variables. A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was defined as periodontal disease.

          Results

          Consumption of coffee was significantly higher in the individuals with periodontitis in males. The odds ratios of the percentage of individuals with periodontitis tended to increase with the consumption of coffee. Adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals of the male participants were 1, 1.131(0.792–1.617), 1.161(0.857–1.573), 1.053(0.805–1.379), 1.299(1.007–1.676), and 1.458(1.141–1.862) for once per month or less, once per month<x≤3 times per week, three times per week<x≤6 times per week, once per day, twice per day, and three or more per day, respectively.

          Conclusions

          Consumption of coffee may be considered an independent risk indicator of periodontal disease in Korean male adults, and we suggest that the periodontal health of male may benefit from reduction of coffee consumption.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Use and abuse of HOMA modeling.

          Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) is a method for assessing beta-cell function and insulin resistance (IR) from basal (fasting) glucose and insulin or C-peptide concentrations. It has been reported in >500 publications, 20 times more frequently for the estimation of IR than beta-cell function. This article summarizes the physiological basis of HOMA, a structural model of steady-state insulin and glucose domains, constructed from physiological dose responses of glucose uptake and insulin production. Hepatic and peripheral glucose efflux and uptake were modeled to be dependent on plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Decreases in beta-cell function were modeled by changing the beta-cell response to plasma glucose concentrations. The original HOMA model was described in 1985 with a formula for approximate estimation. The computer model is available but has not been as widely used as the approximation formulae. HOMA has been validated against a variety of physiological methods. We review the use and reporting of HOMA in the literature and give guidance on its appropriate use (e.g., cohort and epidemiological studies) and inappropriate use (e.g., measuring beta-cell function in isolation). The HOMA model compares favorably with other models and has the advantage of requiring only a single plasma sample assayed for insulin and glucose. In conclusion, the HOMA model has become a widely used clinical and epidemiological tool and, when used appropriately, it can yield valuable data. However, as with all models, the primary input data need to be robust, and the data need to be interpreted carefully.
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            Prevalence of periodontitis in adults in the United States: 2009 and 2010.

             R Genco,  P Eke,  B Dye (2012)
            This study estimated the prevalence, severity, and extent of periodontitis in the adult U.S. population, with data from the 2009 and 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycle. Estimates were derived from a sample of 3,742 adults aged 30 years and older, of the civilian non-institutionalized population, having 1 or more natural teeth. Attachment loss (AL) and probing depth (PD) were measured at 6 sites per tooth on all teeth (except the third molars). Over 47% of the sample, representing 64.7 million adults, had periodontitis, distributed as 8.7%, 30.0%, and 8.5% with mild, moderate, and severe periodontitis, respectively. For adults aged 65 years and older, 64% had either moderate or severe periodontitis. Eighty-six and 40.9% had 1 or more teeth with AL ≥ 3 mm and PD ≥ 4 mm, respectively. With respect to extent of disease, 56% and 18% of the adult population had 5% or more periodontal sites with ≥ 3 mm AL and ≥ 4 mm PD, respectively. Periodontitis was highest in men, Mexican Americans, adults with less than a high school education, adults below 100% Federal Poverty Levels (FPL), and current smokers. This survey has provided direct evidence for a high burden of periodontitis in the adult U.S. population.
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              Sugar-sweetened beverages and dental caries in adults: a 4-year prospective study.

              To explore the association between frequency of consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and caries increment over 4 years in adults. A second objective was to explore whether the association between frequency of SSB consumption and caries increment varied by socio-demographic characteristics and use of fluoride toothpaste.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biostatistics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [2 ]Bangmok College of General Education, Myongji University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [3 ]Department of Periodontics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                University of Insubria, ITALY
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: KH EW JP. Performed the experiments: KH EW JP. Analyzed the data: KH EW JP. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: KH EW JP. Wrote the paper: KH EW JP.

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                7 July 2016
                2016
                : 11
                : 7
                PONE-D-16-12645
                10.1371/journal.pone.0158845
                4936751
                27387296
                © 2016 Han et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 3, Pages: 11
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                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001321, National Research Foundation;
                Award ID: NRF-2014R1A1A1003106
                Award Recipient :
                This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, Information Communication Technology (ICT) & Future Planning (NRF-2014R1A1A1003106) (Seoul, Republic of Korea).
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Nutrition
                Diet
                Beverages
                Coffee
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Nutrition
                Diet
                Beverages
                Coffee
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Oral Medicine
                Oral Diseases
                Periodontal Diseases
                Periodontitis
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Digestive System
                Teeth
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Anatomy
                Digestive System
                Teeth
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Head
                Jaw
                Teeth
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Anatomy
                Head
                Jaw
                Teeth
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Oral Medicine
                Oral Diseases
                Periodontal Diseases
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Metabolic Disorders
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Nutrition
                Diet
                Beverages
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Nutrition
                Diet
                Beverages
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Physiology
                Physiological Parameters
                Body Weight
                Body Mass Index
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Physiology
                Physiological Parameters
                Body Weight
                Body Mass Index
                People and Places
                Geographical Locations
                Asia
                Korea
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

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