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Association between Consumption of Coffee and the Prevalence of Periodontitis: The 2008–2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

1 , 2 , 3 , *

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      Abstract

      BackgroundThis study was performed to assess the relationship between the consumption of coffee and periodontitis using nationally representative data.MethodsThe data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used; the analysis in this study was confined to a total of 16,730 respondents over 19 years old who had no missing values for the consumption of coffee or outcome variables. A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was defined as periodontal disease.ResultsConsumption of coffee was significantly higher in the individuals with periodontitis in males. The odds ratios of the percentage of individuals with periodontitis tended to increase with the consumption of coffee. Adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals of the male participants were 1, 1.131(0.792–1.617), 1.161(0.857–1.573), 1.053(0.805–1.379), 1.299(1.007–1.676), and 1.458(1.141–1.862) for once per month or less, once per month<x≤3 times per week, three times per week<x≤6 times per week, once per day, twice per day, and three or more per day, respectively.ConclusionsConsumption of coffee may be considered an independent risk indicator of periodontal disease in Korean male adults, and we suggest that the periodontal health of male may benefit from reduction of coffee consumption.

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      Most cited references 42

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      Use and abuse of HOMA modeling.

      Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) is a method for assessing beta-cell function and insulin resistance (IR) from basal (fasting) glucose and insulin or C-peptide concentrations. It has been reported in >500 publications, 20 times more frequently for the estimation of IR than beta-cell function. This article summarizes the physiological basis of HOMA, a structural model of steady-state insulin and glucose domains, constructed from physiological dose responses of glucose uptake and insulin production. Hepatic and peripheral glucose efflux and uptake were modeled to be dependent on plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Decreases in beta-cell function were modeled by changing the beta-cell response to plasma glucose concentrations. The original HOMA model was described in 1985 with a formula for approximate estimation. The computer model is available but has not been as widely used as the approximation formulae. HOMA has been validated against a variety of physiological methods. We review the use and reporting of HOMA in the literature and give guidance on its appropriate use (e.g., cohort and epidemiological studies) and inappropriate use (e.g., measuring beta-cell function in isolation). The HOMA model compares favorably with other models and has the advantage of requiring only a single plasma sample assayed for insulin and glucose. In conclusion, the HOMA model has become a widely used clinical and epidemiological tool and, when used appropriately, it can yield valuable data. However, as with all models, the primary input data need to be robust, and the data need to be interpreted carefully.
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        Prevalence of periodontitis in adults in the United States: 2009 and 2010.

         R Genco,  P Eke,  B Dye (2012)
        This study estimated the prevalence, severity, and extent of periodontitis in the adult U.S. population, with data from the 2009 and 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycle. Estimates were derived from a sample of 3,742 adults aged 30 years and older, of the civilian non-institutionalized population, having 1 or more natural teeth. Attachment loss (AL) and probing depth (PD) were measured at 6 sites per tooth on all teeth (except the third molars). Over 47% of the sample, representing 64.7 million adults, had periodontitis, distributed as 8.7%, 30.0%, and 8.5% with mild, moderate, and severe periodontitis, respectively. For adults aged 65 years and older, 64% had either moderate or severe periodontitis. Eighty-six and 40.9% had 1 or more teeth with AL ≥ 3 mm and PD ≥ 4 mm, respectively. With respect to extent of disease, 56% and 18% of the adult population had 5% or more periodontal sites with ≥ 3 mm AL and ≥ 4 mm PD, respectively. Periodontitis was highest in men, Mexican Americans, adults with less than a high school education, adults below 100% Federal Poverty Levels (FPL), and current smokers. This survey has provided direct evidence for a high burden of periodontitis in the adult U.S. population.
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          Prevalence of Diabetes and Prediabetes according to Fasting Plasma Glucose and HbA1c

          Background Due to the inconvenience of performing oral glucose tolerance tests and day to day variability in glucose level, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) has been recommended by the American Diabetes Association as a method to diagnose diabetes. In addition, the Korean Diabetes Association has also recommended the use of HbA1c as a diagnostic test for diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of diabetes according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level only or the combination of FPG and HbA1c tests. Methods Data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were analyzed. Among 5,811 subjects aged 30 years or older, 5,020 were selected after excluding the data of fasting time <8 hours, missing values from fasting glucose or HbA1c level, previous diagnosis of diabetes made by physicians, or current use of antidiabetic medications. Diabetes was defined as FPG ≥126 mg/dL, previous diagnosis of diabetes made by a medical doctor, current use of antidiabetic medications, and/or HbA1c ≥6.5%. Prediabetes was defined as FPG of 100 to 125 mg/dL and/or HbA1c of 5.7% to 6.4%. Results When we used FPG only, the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes were 10.5% (men, 12.6%; women, 8.5%) and 19.3% (men, 23.8%; women, 14.9%), respectively. When HbA1c was included as a diagnostic test, the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes increased to 12.4% (men, 14.5%; women, 10.4%) and 38.3% (men, 41%; women, 35.7%), respectively. Participants with HbA1c ≥6.5% and fasting glucose level <126 mg/dL were older and had lower estimated glomerular filtration rate. Conclusion We concluded that using fasting glucose level only may result in an underestimation of diabetes and prediabetes. HbA1c is an acceptable complementary diagnostic test for diabetes in Korean patients. However, national standardization is needed to order to use HbA1c as a diagnostic method of diabetes and prediabetes.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Biostatistics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea
            [2 ]Bangmok College of General Education, Myongji University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
            [3 ]Department of Periodontics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea
            University of Insubria, ITALY
            Author notes

            Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

            Conceived and designed the experiments: KH EW JP. Performed the experiments: KH EW JP. Analyzed the data: KH EW JP. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: KH EW JP. Wrote the paper: KH EW JP.

            Contributors
            Role: Editor
            Journal
            PLoS One
            PLoS ONE
            plos
            plosone
            PLoS ONE
            Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
            1932-6203
            7 July 2016
            2016
            : 11
            : 7
            27387296
            4936751
            10.1371/journal.pone.0158845
            PONE-D-16-12645
            (Editor)
            © 2016 Han et al

            This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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            Funding
            Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001321, National Research Foundation;
            Award ID: NRF-2014R1A1A1003106
            Award Recipient :
            This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, Information Communication Technology (ICT) & Future Planning (NRF-2014R1A1A1003106) (Seoul, Republic of Korea).
            Categories
            Research Article
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Nutrition
            Diet
            Beverages
            Coffee
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Nutrition
            Diet
            Beverages
            Coffee
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Oral Medicine
            Oral Diseases
            Periodontal Diseases
            Periodontitis
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Anatomy
            Digestive System
            Teeth
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Anatomy
            Digestive System
            Teeth
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Anatomy
            Head
            Jaw
            Teeth
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Anatomy
            Head
            Jaw
            Teeth
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Oral Medicine
            Oral Diseases
            Periodontal Diseases
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Metabolic Disorders
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Nutrition
            Diet
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            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Nutrition
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            Biology and Life Sciences
            Physiology
            Physiological Parameters
            Body Weight
            Body Mass Index
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Physiology
            Physiological Parameters
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            People and Places
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            Asia
            Korea
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