Objective To examine the vitamin A status of children and adolescents aged between 6–17 years old in Chongqing, and to analyze the influencing factors of vitamin A deficiency, providing a scientific basis for nutritional improvement measures.
Methods From 2016 to 2017, a multi-stage random sampling method was used to select approximately 1 508 children and adolescents aged between 6–17 years old from three rural and three urban locations in Chongqing. This study carried out a questionnaire survey and laboratory testing, and the statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 25.0.
Results The mean vitamin A level was (1.45±0.42) μmoL/L, while the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and the subclinical deficiency rate were 0.46% and 13.46%, respectively. The binary Logistic regression analysis revealed that the following factors were associated with a lower risk of vitamin A deficiency: overweight and obese students ( OR=0.51); students whose mothers had a high school education or above ( OR=0.35, P=0.01); students from big cities; and higher quartile albumin levels ( Q3 and Q4). Students who did not eat meat each day ( OR=2.05), students aged 6–8 years old, and students with C-reactive protein in the third ( OR=2.12) and fourth ( OR=4.54) higher quartiles were at a higher risk of vitamin A deficiency.
Conclusion The subclinical vitamin A deficiency rate was relatively high among children aged 6–17 years old in Chongqing. Measures including nutritional education, reasonable diets, and nutritionally fortified food or fortifiers should be used when necessary.
【摘要】 目的 了解重庆市 6~17 岁中小学生维生素 A 营养状况, 并分析维生素 A 缺乏的影响因素, 为后续研究和制定 营养改善措施提供科学依据。 方法 于 2016—2017 年, 通过多阶段分层与人口成比例整群随机抽样方法在重庆市选择 3 个农村点和 3 个城市点, 抽取 1 508 名 6~17 岁儿童青少年, 开展问卷调查和实验室检测, 采用 SPSS 25.0 进行统计分析。 结果 学生维生素A浓度均值为 (1.45±0.42) μmoL/L, 维生素 A 缺乏率和亚临床缺乏率分别为 0.46%, 13.46%。二元 Logistic 回归分析结果表明, 超重及肥胖 ( OR=0.51)、母亲文化程度为高中及以上 ( OR=0.35)、大城市、白蛋白四分位数为 Q3 和 Q4 的学生与维生素A缺乏呈负相关, 每天不吃肉 ( OR=2.05)、C 反应蛋白四分位数为 Q3 ( OR=2.12) 和 Q4 ( OR=4.54) 的学生与维生素 A 缺乏呈正相关 ( P 值均<0.05)。 结论 重庆市 6~8 岁中小学生维生素 A 亚临床缺乏率较高。建议通过 加强营养教育、保障合理膳食、必要时使用营养强化食品或营养强化剂等手段进行改善。