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      Endothelial dysfunction: a multifaceted disorder (The Wiggers Award Lecture).

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          Abstract

          Endothelial cells synthesize and release various factors that regulate angiogenesis, inflammatory responses, hemostasis, as well as vascular tone and permeability. Endothelial dysfunction has been associated with a number of pathophysiological processes. Oxidative stress appears to be a common denominator underlying endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases. However, depending on the pathology, the vascular bed studied, the stimulant, and additional factors such as age, sex, salt intake, cholesterolemia, glycemia, and hyperhomocysteinemia, the mechanisms underlying the endothelial dysfunction can be markedly different. A reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO), an alteration in the production of prostanoids, including prostacyclin, thromboxane A2, and/or isoprostanes, an impairment of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization, as well as an increased release of endothelin-1, can individually or in association contribute to endothelial dysfunction. Therapeutic interventions do not necessarily restore a proper endothelial function and, when they do, may improve only part of these variables.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol
          American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology
          American Physiological Society
          0363-6135
          0363-6135
          Sep 2006
          : 291
          : 3
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Angiology, Institut de Recherches Servier, Suresnes, France.
          Article
          00292.2006
          10.1152/ajpheart.00292.2006
          16632549
          a24f3590-ae19-40e9-94bb-2e1ff9ed6fd2

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