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      Factors Influencing Skeletal Maturation at Diagnosis of Paediatric Cushing’s Disease

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Growth retardation is a recognised complication of paediatric Cushing’s disease (CD), but there are few published data on skeletal maturation at diagnosis. We assessed factors contributing to skeletal maturation in patients with paediatric CD. Patients/Methods: 17 patients, 12 males, 5 females (median age 12.1 years, range 5.8–17.4) were studied. The bone age (BA) of each child was determined by a single observer using the TW3 RUS method. BA delay, i.e. the difference between chronological age (CA) and BA, was compared with clinical and biochemical variables. Results: BA delay was present in 15/17 patients (mean delay 2.0 years, range –0.5 to 4.1 years) and correlated negatively with height SDS (r = –0.70, p < 0.01) and positively with duration of symptoms (r = 0.48, p = 0.05) and CA (r = 0.48, p = 0.05). No relationships were found with midnight cortisol, ACTH, DHEA-S or cortisol suppression during the low-dose dexamethasone suppression test. Conclusions: BA in most children with CD was delayed and related to length of symptoms and height SDS at diagnosis. Early diagnosis will reduce delay in skeletal maturation and thus contribute to optimal catch-up growth.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Androgens and bone.

          Loss of estrogens or androgens increases the rate of bone remodeling by removing restraining effects on osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis, and also causes a focal imbalance between resorption and formation by prolonging the lifespan of osteoclasts and shortening the lifespan of osteoblasts. Conversely, androgens, as well as estrogens, maintain cancellous bone mass and integrity, regardless of age or sex. Although androgens, via the androgen receptor (AR), and estrogens, via the estrogen receptors (ERs), can exert these effects, their relative contribution remains uncertain. Recent studies suggest that androgen action on cancellous bone depends on (local) aromatization of androgens into estrogens. However, at least in rodents, androgen action on cancellous bone can be directly mediated via AR activation, even in the absence of ERs. Androgens also increase cortical bone size via stimulation of both longitudinal and radial growth. First, androgens, like estrogens, have a biphasic effect on endochondral bone formation: at the start of puberty, sex steroids stimulate endochondral bone formation, whereas they induce epiphyseal closure at the end of puberty. Androgen action on the growth plate is, however, clearly mediated via aromatization in estrogens and interaction with ERalpha. Androgens increase radial growth, whereas estrogens decrease periosteal bone formation. This effect of androgens may be important because bone strength in males seems to be determined by relatively higher periosteal bone formation and, therefore, greater bone dimensions, relative to muscle mass at older age. Experiments in mice again suggest that both the AR and ERalpha pathways are involved in androgen action on radial bone growth. ERbeta may mediate growth-limiting effects of estrogens in the female but does not seem to be involved in the regulation of bone size in males. In conclusion, androgens may protect men against osteoporosis via maintenance of cancellous bone mass and expansion of cortical bone. Such androgen action on bone is mediated by the AR and ERalpha.
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            Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: an update.

            Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis occurs in two phases: a rapid, early phase in which bone mineral density is reduced, possibly as a result of excessive bone resorption, and a slower, progressive phase in which bone mineral density declines because of impaired bone formation. Although the indirect effects of glucocorticoids on bone are evident, their direct effects on osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes are primarily operative in the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. The management of patients exposed to glucocorticoids includes general health measures, sufficient calcium and vitamin D, and reducing the therapeutic regimen to the minimal effective dose. The gold standard in the pharmacological treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in postmenopausal women involves the use of bisphosphonates, which should be started soon after beginning chronic glucocorticoid therapy. Anabolic and alternative therapeutic strategies are currently under investigation in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.
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              The Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis of Cushing's Syndrome and Pseudo-Cushing's States

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2007
                October 2007
                28 March 2007
                : 68
                : 5
                : 231-235
                Affiliations
                Departments of aPaediatric and bAdult Endocrinology, The Royal London Hospital, London, and cDepartment of Paediatrics, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, UK
                Article
                101336 Horm Res 2007;68:231–235
                10.1159/000101336
                17389813
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 29, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Original Paper

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