136 patients on hemodialysis, 89 males and 47 females, were studied; we evaluated the index of hepatic function (SGOT and SGPT) and antibodies against HCV. We observed 42 cases of increased transaminases classified as non-A, non-B (NANB) hepatitis. Antibodies against HCV were present in 40 patients. Among 42 patients with NANB hepatitis. 31 (73.8%) presented anti-HCV antibodies. No significant clinical or laboratory difference exists between anti-HCV-positive and -negative patients with NANB hepatitis. The distribution of patients who present anti-HCV antibodies is similar in post-transfusional and sporadic forms.