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      Alternativas microbiológicas para el manejo de Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands., en Persea americana Mill. bajo condiciones de casa-malla Translated title: Microbiological alternatives for Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands., management in Persea americana Mill. under greenhouse conditions

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          Abstract

          Para la producción de aguacate en Colombia es necesario establecer alternativas de manejo amigables con el medio ambiente y de bajo costo para el control de la enfermedad conocida como marchitez, cuyo principal agente causal es Phytophthora cinnamomi. El uso de microorganismos del suelo, es una opción viable para mejorar la nutrición y sanidad en Persea americana, buscando ser más competitivos en aras de afrontar los tratados de libre comercio y poder aprovechar el potencial exportador que presenta este frutal. Entendiendo la complejidad del sistema de la microbiota del suelo, consecuencia de su gran diversidad y de las distintas relaciones ecológicas que lo gobiernan, este trabajo estuvo encaminado a evaluar en condiciones de invernadero el efecto de cepas de Trichoderma sp., Glomus fasciculatum y una cepa de Pseudomonas sp., en el desarrollo de plántulas de P. americana, sin inocular e inoculadas con P. cinnamomi. Los resultados encontrados en este trabajo sugieren queG. fasciculatum y Pseudomonas sp., solos o en combinación, favorecen el desarrollo de plántulas de aguacate, mientras que Trichoderma sp. presentó los mejores resultados en la reducción del progreso de la enfermedad de marchitez en plantas inoculadas con P. cinnamomi. Los microorganismos del suelo presentan un enorme potencial para el desarrollo y protección contra patógenos en P. americana, pero se hace necesario entender todas las relaciones para poder potenciar su uso como biofertilizantes y agentes de biocontrol

          Translated abstract

          Avocado crop production in Colombia requires establishing environmentally friendly and inexpensive measures for wilt disease management, whose main causal agent is. Soil microorganisms use is an option for improving nutrition and health in Persea americana, looking to be more competitive in order to face the free trade agreements and to exploit the full export potential for this fruit. Understanding the complexity of the soil microbiota system, due to its great diversity and different ecological relationships that govern it, this study was designed to evaluate under greenhouse conditions the effect of Trichoderma sp, Glomus fasciculatum and Pseudomonas sp. isolates, on P. americana seedling development inoculated and non-inoculated with P. cinnamomi. Results found in this work suggest that G. fasciculatum and Pseudomonas sp., alone or in combination increase avocado seedling development, meanwhile Trichoderma sp. showed the best results in reducing the wilt disease progress on P. cinnamomi-inoculated plants. Soil microorganisms have a large potential for P. Americana development and pathogen protection, but it is necessary to understand all possible relationships in order to strengthen their use as biofertilizers and biocontrol agents

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          Most cited references31

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          Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

          Several microbes promote plant growth, and many microbial products that stimulate plant growth have been marketed. In this review we restrict ourselves to bacteria that are derived from and exert this effect on the root. Such bacteria are generally designated as PGPR (plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria). The beneficial effects of these rhizobacteria on plant growth can be direct or indirect. This review begins with describing the conditions under which bacteria live in the rhizosphere. To exert their beneficial effects, bacteria usually must colonize the root surface efficiently. Therefore, bacterial traits required for root colonization are subsequently described. Finally, several mechanisms by which microbes can act beneficially on plant growth are described. Examples of direct plant growth promotion that are discussed include (a) biofertilization, (b) stimulation of root growth, (c) rhizoremediation, and (d) plant stress control. Mechanisms of biological control by which rhizobacteria can promote plant growth indirectly, i.e., by reducing the level of disease, include antibiosis, induction of systemic resistance, and competition for nutrients and niches.
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            Arbuscular mycorrhiza: the mother of plant root endosymbioses.

            Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), a symbiosis between plants and members of an ancient phylum of fungi, the Glomeromycota, improves the supply of water and nutrients, such as phosphate and nitrogen, to the host plant. In return, up to 20% of plant-fixed carbon is transferred to the fungus. Nutrient transport occurs through symbiotic structures inside plant root cells known as arbuscules. AM development is accompanied by an exchange of signalling molecules between the symbionts. A novel class of plant hormones known as strigolactones are exuded by the plant roots. On the one hand, strigolactones stimulate fungal metabolism and branching. On the other hand, they also trigger seed germination of parasitic plants. Fungi release signalling molecules, in the form of 'Myc factors' that trigger symbiotic root responses. Plant genes required for AM development have been characterized. During evolution, the genetic programme for AM has been recruited for other plant root symbioses: functional adaptation of a plant receptor kinase that is essential for AM symbiosis paved the way for nitrogen-fixing bacteria to form intracellular symbioses with plant cells.
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              Mycorrhiza-induced resistance and priming of plant defenses.

              Symbioses between plants and beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are known to promote plant growth and help plants to cope with biotic and abiotic stresses. Profound physiological changes take place in the host plant upon root colonization by AMF affecting the interactions with a wide range of organisms below- and above-ground. Protective effects of the symbiosis against pathogens, pests, and parasitic plants have been described for many plant species, including agriculturally important crop varieties. Besides mechanisms such as improved plant nutrition and competition, experimental evidence supports a major role of plant defenses in the observed protection. During mycorrhiza establishment, modulation of plant defense responses occurs thus achieving a functional symbiosis. As a consequence of this modulation, a mild, but effective activation of the plant immune responses seems to occur, not only locally but also systemically. This activation leads to a primed state of the plant that allows a more efficient activation of defense mechanisms in response to attack by potential enemies. Here, we give an overview of the impact on interactions between mycorrhizal plants and pathogens, herbivores, and parasitic plants, and we summarize the current knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. We focus on the priming of jasmonate-regulated plant defense mechanisms that play a central role in the induction of resistance by arbuscular mycorrhizas.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ctr
                Cultivos Tropicales
                cultrop
                Ediciones INCA (La Habana, , Cuba )
                0258-5936
                1819-4087
                December 2014
                : 35
                : 4
                : 19-27
                Affiliations
                [01] Medellín orgnameUniversidad Nacional de Colombia orgdiv1Sede Medellín orgdiv2Departamento de Ciencias Agronómicas Colombia
                Article
                S0258-59362014000400003 S0258-5936(14)03500403
                a38557b8-8d39-4693-a58e-9115c1c9fb04

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 14 April 2013
                : 27 September 2013
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 31, Pages: 9
                Product

                SciELO Cuba

                Self URI: Texto completo solamente en formato PDF (ES)

                plant growth promoting microorganisms,marchitez de aguacate,microorganismos promotores de crecimiento,avocado wilt

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